Friday, December 28, 2012

Thomas Felbrigge/Philbrick of Hampton, N.H.

Felbrigge Hall Dove Cote by Keith Evans

Many years ago I lived in Suffolk, England. I don't know if I could have spelled the word genealogy at the time, nevermind have taken the slightest bit of interest in it. Oh, the research I could have done, pictures I could have taken, argh! Oh well, that life isn't it. I can remember visiting Felbrigge Hall in Norfolk, it was a beautiful house and grounds. 
The original family was long gone, but the name lived on, despite new owners.  Thomas, my ancestor,  may or may not have shared a common ancestor with the Fellbriggs of the hall, but he did share their name, at least until he came to Massachusetts when the spelling changed. There is a lot of good stuff written about the Philbricks, and as always a few errors, mostly on ancestry.com.  I can't claim any new information but maybe I can correct a few minor mistakes.  So this is what I know about Thomas Felbrigge of Bures, England and Hampton, NH.

english origins
Thomas was born in the small village of Bures St. Mary’s in Suffolk, England. Bures St. Mary’s is on the Stour River, which is the border between the counties of Essex and Suffolk.  The Stour Valley was home to many of the original Puritan founders and immigrants to the Massachusetts Bay Colony, including Governor John Winthrop. In fact it is only 7 miles from Bures to Groton Farm, Winthrope’s home.  The Felbrigge family had lived in the Bures area since the 1400s and as Thomas was the only one of his siblings to leave, they may be there still. 


The Stour Valley was, at that time, well known for its cloth making and it has been suggested that Thomas' father, Thomas Sr. was a fuller. Fulling is a step in making woolen cloth which involves the cleaning of the wool. On 5 October 1620, Thomas Felbrigge Sr. was appointed "searcher of cloths". A "seacher" was an inspector who was responsible for ensuring the quality and other attributes of the product.  Unfortunately, by the 1630s, war, drought, and a poor economy had wreaked havoc on the cloth industry and many of the workers were out of work. 

porch St. Mary's Bures, photo from
British Express
Thomas is believed to be the second son and fourth child of Thomas and Elizabeth Felbrigg. The family eventually included ten children, one of which died as an infant.  Thomas Sr. was born about 1545 and died sometime after 1621.  His wife Elizabeth was buried in 1619. Thomas Jr. was by then a grown man of 37, married with children of his own. It is not known what his occupation was in England. 

Thomas married in Bures on 4 June 1615 Elizabeth Knop daughter of William Knop of Bures. All of Thomas' children were born in England. Thomas is last mentioned in the Manor Rolls for Bures St. Mary's in 1631 when he and several other men were charged with converting buildings on their properties to cottages, presumably to rent out. This was apparently frowned upon. There is no further court date until 1 Oct 1635 at which time he and his family were in America. 

coming to america, the great debate
For years genealogist have stated that the Felbrigge family came to Massachusetts in 1630 aboard the flagship the Arabella.  The source for this information was given as old family papers.  Some also claim that Thomas was actually a mariner aboard the Arabella. Neither of these two bits of information seem plausible and there is no proof of either. We know Thomas was in England in 1631 because his daughter Martha was baptized in September 1631, which means she would have been, now don't blush, conceived in late January, or early February 1631. Thomas was also present at the Court Baron on 12 October. 

There are no records of Thomas Philbrick in Massachusetts in the very first years. I think it is more likely that he and his family left England in 1635.  There were, however families from Bures, and other nearby villages, who Thomas most likely knew and who did sail in 1630.  The Knapp family as well as the French family would have been known to the Felbrigges, and they both were part of the Winthrop Fleet. In fact Thomas' son would marry one of the Knapp daughters, maybe that is who the family papers referenced. Any hoo, when Robert Charles Anderson of the Great Migration series says Thomas came on the Arabella I'll change my story, but until then I'm sticking with 1635.

watertown
Watertown, one of the first towns of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and many of its first citizens were immigrants from East Anglia and the Stour Valley. By November 1635 Watertown declared that it was "full" and would accept no more proprietors. Thomas was obviously there by then as he was given land in the 1636 great Dividend.  Thomas did not have a prominent role in the foundation of the new town, his name is first mentioned in the Watertown records in late 1640 when he was "ordered to set up a house at the waterside, provided it be for a house to receive stray goods according to ye order of the court". Hum, not sure what that means. 

Thomas was given land in six divisions including a home stall, meadow, upland and a large farm of 127 acres in the third division. By 1642 almost all the land had been given out and unlike other new towns, no land was set aside for later distribution to the next generation, nor were there any "children's lots".  Thomas' sons had to look elsewhere to find their lands. In 1639 his second son, James, left Watertown for the new plantation of Hampton.

hampton
In June 1640, John Philbrick was granted his first lands in Hampton. According to the Chapman article on the Philbrick family, Thomas sold his Watertown property to one Isaac Stearns in Jan of 1645/6 and joined his sons in Hampton.  He was by then 62 years old.  
He bought land from Captain Christopher Hussey. In his will he left multiple parcels of land to his children including a house lot, orchard, marshland, and a share in the small ox common.

His name does not come up much in the records of either Hampton or Essex County.  In 1648 he was in court to record a receipt and in 1650 he filed against William Aspinhall of Hampton for "granting an attachment against him contrary to law". He had been covenanted to provide the town of Hampton with powder, bullets and match.  The lawsuit had to do with this.  In 1655 Thomas was appointed the job Culler of Staves.  A large part of the Hampton economy centered on the production of wooden staves used to make barrels.

rip
Elizabeth, of whom very little is known, died in Hampton in Feb of 1663/4. Thomas wrote his will about one month later on 12 March 1663/4.  It was proved on 8 Oct. 1667, Thomas was 83 years old, a great age in those days. His estate was valued at 124 pounds. see below for his will.

children

John
John was baptized at St. Mary's in Bures on 1 Oct. 1616. He was 19 when the family left England for Massachusetts.  He left Watertown and settled in Hampton in 1640.  He married Ann in Hampton and had seven children.  He, his wife and daughter Sarah drowned on their way to Boston, when they were "cast into the sea" on 20 Oct. 1657. His son Thomas lived with his grandfather after John and his wife died. 

James
my ancestor, see next blog 

Elizabeth
She was baptized in St. Mary's on 31 Oct of 1621.  She married three times. Her first husband was Thomas Chase of Hampton they married in 1642 and he died in 1652. Second she married John Garland of Hampton, they were married on Oct. 26, 1654.  They were married for only seven years when he died in 1661. Thirdly, she married Henry Robie, also of Hampton.  She died in 1677.

Thomas
Thomas was baptized on 7 March 1623/4.  He died 24 Nov. 1700.  He married Ann Knapp, daughter of William Knapp of Watertown and previously of Bures St. Mary's.  William was probably a kinsman of some type of Thomas' mother Elizabeth Knop. In 1651 he settled on land in Seabrook.  His wife Ann died in 1669 and he married Hannah French White, widow of John White of Haverhill, daughter of Edward French of Hampton.

Hannah
Hannah's baptism is not recorded.  She married Phillip Lewis of Dover, Hampton and Portsmouth.

Mary
Mary was married twice, first to Edward Tuck of Hampton in 1648.  He died in 1652, she remarried to James Wall.

Martha
Martha was baptized 4 Sept. 1631, last of Thomas' children.  She was only a small child when the family came to America.  She married twice, first to John Cass of Hampton in 1657. He died suddenly in bed in 1675, she married second to William Lyon.

Will of Thomas PhilbrickThe Last will and testament of Thomas Philbrick SunR I Thomas Philbrick being very Aged and weak in body Butt sound in understanding senc & memory Doe settle my Estate according to this my last will here under writtenImpri I Give and Bequeth unto my son James Philbrick and to my Grand Child John Philbrick my fresh medow lying near to the Beach being by Estimation six acres more or less as itt is the which to bee Equally Devided betwen them att such time as shal be . after mentioned: Ittem I Give unto my son James Phil-brick . . Dwelling House and my House lott with the orch-yard and all . . . priveledges and appertinances thear unto belonging to him . . His Heiers for Ever: Ittem I Give & bquith unto my son . . and to my Grand Child John Philbrick my . . . . of Thomas Sleeper lying towards the Clam-bancks in that . . of marsh Comonly Called the Little ox Comon to bee Devided . . them att such time as is hereafter mentioned
Ittem I Give unto my sonn Thomas Philbrick the some of . . pounds to bee payd by My Exequetor after my disease ittem I Give unto my. sonn Thomas Philbrick the land which was sometimes Daniell Hendrakes Called the Hop Ground to bee wholly att His Disposall at this prsent time: Ittem I Give unto my sonn James one bed with all the furnituer thearunto belongeing and a payer, of Cob Irons and a payer of tongues: Ittem I Give unto my Grand Child John Philbrick thatt Bed which hee useth to ly upon with the Bedding Belonging to It. and my Beetle and [fower] wedges and one of my Hakes: and a weanable Cow Calfe within a yeer after my Diseace to bee payd by my Exequetor and like wise I Give to my Grand Daughter Hanna Philbrick one weanable Cow Calfe the next yeer to bee payd by my Exequetor
Ittem I Give unto my son James Philbrick my mare and hee is to pay or deliver unto my sonn Thomas Philbrick the first Colt which she shall bring when itt is weanable Ittem I Give my fower Cowes to my fower Daughters to my Daughter Elizabeth one to my Daughter Hanna one to my Daughter mary [one] and to my Daughter martha one to bee Delivered by my Executor after my Deseace and the moveables in the House which [are] not Expressed above are to bee Equally Devided between [my four] Daughters after my Desease. and I Doe appoint my sonn [James] Philbrick to bee my lawfull Exequetor to this my Last [will] and Testament and I Doe Declare itt to bee my Intent thatt [when] my Grand Child John Philbrick shall Come to the age of twenty one yeeres thatt then hee shall Enter upon & posses whatt I have Given him by this last will: and thatt att the Deseace of my Daughter Elizabeth Garland her son James Chase shall have one Cow in lew of the Cow which I have Given my daughter Elizabeth & thatt the Cow Given to my Daughter Cass shalbee for the use and Pfitt of her daughter martha: & for the Confermation Hereof I have sett to my hand & Seale the twelft of march 166 :64:
Thomas [Seal] Philbrick
X
his mark
Signed & Sealed in ye prsents of
Samuell Dalton
Mehetabel Dalton


Sources:
G. Andrew Moriority, The English Connections of Thomas Felbrigge or Philbrick of Hampton N.H., The Register, Vol. 108 p. 25
Rev. Jacob Chapman, Thomas Philbrick and His Family, The Register, Vol. 38, p. 279
Wikipedia
Richard Burn, The Justice of the Peace and Parish Officer, vol 4
Joseph Dow, History of the Town of Hampton, New Hampshire vol 1 and 2
Pioneers of Maine and New Hampshire, 1623-1660
Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins, 1620-1633
Watertown Vital Records
Watertown Town Records
Records of the Quarterly Court of Essex County

extra info
If you read the manor court rolls from Bures St. Mary's you might like to know a bit more about the terminology.  This is a very informative explanation about the Manor system, still used in the time of Thomas Philbrick.
from Medieval English Towns
Frankpledge
A system of policing and law enforcement found at the lowest level of society; later part of the manorial system of administration of justice and, by extension, that of towns. It hearks back to the earliest application of the "jury" in Anglo-Saxon England which relied on the knowledge of an accused man's peers and neighbours to vouch for guilt or innocence. Late Anglo-Saxon law required, in most parts of England, every commoner, (unless part of the household of a lord), to be a member of a "tithing" – "ten people" (although in practice groupings were not necessarily of the exact number) – later known as a frankpledge. Tithings were grouped into larger units known as hundreds. The tithing was communally responsible for ensuring that any of its members accused of a crime appeared in court to answer for it, or for the pursuit and capture of a member who fled. (failing that, the group could be answerable for compensating an injured party); they were essentially pledges for the behaviour of their members. The group was also responsible for bringing to the court's attention, through presentments made by their leader (the tithingman – later known as the capital pledgem that is, chief pledge), any crimes committed by its members. These presentments were made by the capital pledges together, acting as a jury representing the local community, and might also extend to identifying crimes committed by others outside the tithing system. What were called "views of frankpledge" were held periodically to ensure that all adult males were members of a tithing, to take an oath from them that they would not engage in illegal behaviour or endorse that of others, and to hear presentments. Membership of tithings was likely organized on a neighbourhood basis, and groups of tithings were associated together in wards, or leets. Only those of fixed abode, whether free or servile, could be in frankpledge; those who were itinerant (e.g. vagrants or fugitives) were naturally suspect, unlikely to find guarantors, and lacked property that could be distrained to oblige them to answer to justice. Important men were also outside the frankpledge system; their households formed a kind of tithing, its members being in the "mainpast" of the head of the household, who was answerable for their behaviour. Migration and freeholding (under which a man's property could become a pledge for him answering to justice) undermined the tithing system, although leet administration remained a useful component of judicial administration until the end of the Middle Ages.

leet court



A type of court with a similar jurisdiction to view of frankpledge; it seems to have been the Assize of Clarendon (1166) that led to the amalgamation of presentments of crimes with administration of frankpledge. The leet was essentially the territorial aspect of frankpledge: numbers of tithings were organized into leets, or wards, which were normally sub-units of the hundred; in some towns, constabularies were similar sub-units. A leet might have its own court (as in Norwich) although more usually it simply made its presentments in a special (full) session of the town's hundred court. In less developed towns, the leet court might be essentially the legislative arm of local government. Offences were presented by a jury of capital pledges, also known as headboroughs (from "borh" meaning pledge), after the articles of leet jurisdiction were read out to them. These articles were typically concerned with breaches of the assizes of bread and ale and offences against the community – such as matters affecting public health and safety, private usurpation of public property (e.g. encroachments of buildings, or blocking of rights-of-way), and performance of public officials. The only punishment within the power of a leet court was the setting of amercements, the amount of each being assessed by a second jury (affeerors). As a result of this limited punitive power, the repetitive offences by the same individuals brought before leet proceedings year after year sometimes have more the appearance of a licensing system. Crimes of a more serious nature could also be presented (i.e. made public) by the leet jury, but were referred to higher authorities. In some towns the leet system was partially superseded by the constabulary system.




Tuesday, December 18, 2012

Edward Sanderson of Watertown 1611-169?

Well, here he is, the first (possible) ancestor  who I  do not want to claim.  I think we all want our ancestors to be interesting men and women, leaders, upstanding citizens, prosperous, wealthy even, not to mention descended from royalty.  (Update: It has been proven that William Sanderson, my ancestor, was a nephew of Robert Sanderson of Boston and therefore the nephew of Edward Sanderson of Watertown.

english origins
The English birthplace of Edward Sanderson is unknown. Robert Sanderson, believed to be his brother, said in his apprenticeship agreement, to be from Higham.  Although there is a birth recorded in Higham Ferrers for a child named Edward Saundersonne on 5 May 1611  [1] there is nothing that would prove that this is the same Edward who immigrated to Massachusetts. However, a close study of nearby towns shows quite a few Saundesons who trained as Goldsmiths in London, just as his brother Robert. Note: He is not the son of Edward Saunderson of Sheffield. [2] If definitely think that a circumstantial case can be built for the Sanderson's to have come from the area around Higham Ferrers in Northamptonshire. 

Arrival
How and when Edward arrived in Massachusetts is unknown.  He did not sail on the "Increase" in 1635. He is also not the Edward who arrived in Virginia in 1635.  He was probably not the Edward Sanders who worked for Capt. Francis Champernowne as a land agent in New Hampshire.  That Edward was taken to court 21 October 1645 by Mrs. Sarah Lynne, a widow, whom he claimed to have married.  Our Edward was married 15 Oct. 1645 so that doesn't make sense. Still, given his later bad behavior it could have been him.

Marriage
Edward's marriage to Mary Egelleston in October 1645 [3] seems to have been the high point of his life. His wife is said by many to have been the daughter of Bigod Eggleston of Windsor, Connecticut.  Robert Charles Anderson, in his Great Migration bio of Bigod, stated that he does not believe that she was.  He gave several reasons including the fact that neither she nor her children were named in Bigod's will, all his other living children were in the will. Bigod did not have any connections with Watertown in 1645, he left the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635 for Connecticut.   
Awesome book on Watertown

The reusing of a deceased child's name was very common at that time. Bigod and his first wife had three children, the oldest child James died very young. Bigod named his next son James. They also had a child named Mary, born in 1613/14.  His first wife died, and he remarried by 1634. In  1636 his new wife gave birth to a girl whom they named Mary. Does Bigot then have two daughters named Mary or is it much more likely that the elder Mary had died and like his son James, he reused the name. This is what I believe happened. Mary Egellston who married Edward Sanderson was not the daughter of Bigod.

hard times
Edward and Mary's first child, Jonathan, was born about one year after their marriage in 1646. By 1660 his rapidly growing family, they had six children by then,  was becoming a burden not only for him but for the town itself.  His family was one of four identified by the selectmen of Watertown as providing an inadequate education for their children. In a town meeting of 28 January 1664 the town gave Edward money to support his family. Later that year in May 1664 the town voted to give Edward three bushels of Indian corn.  In 1671 the town was becoming increasingly worried about the prospect of supporting  Edward's family, they decide that some of the children must enter apprenticeships to relieve the burden on the family and ensure that the child was educated. One unnamed daughter was placed with another family at the age of eight, to serve as an apprentice until age 18. The town paid for the care of Edward's children at least through 1676. Jonathan Sanderson, Edward and Mary's oldest child, worked as a servant for Justinian Holden of Cambridge for 4 or 5 years, beginning at age 17.  

It has been suggested by some researchers that Robert Sanderson gave Edward land as a wedding present.  I personally find this hard to believe.  This was a time when men held dearly to their land, not even deeding it to their grown sons, most men were only separated from their land by the grave. Robert Sanderson had more than a few sons to provide for and at the time he left Watertown he was yet to become the wealthy goldsmith he would be in time. 


the icky part
Okay, so the guy was a really bad provider for his family, but he was also something much much worse: a rapist and child abuser. On 8 June 1654 Edward raped an 8 year old girl, Ruth Parson. He admitted having sex with Ruth, but claimed she consented to it. He was convicted but he escaped hanging on a technicality in the law.  His punishment was to be whipped, 30 lashes in Boston and more again in Watertown.  He was to wear a rope around his neck which hung down at least two feet and he was not to be more than 40 rods from his house without the noose on he would be whipped again. His crime, punishment, the rope, a constant reminder that he could be hanged and the response of the town to him may explain why he was not able to provide for his family. 

etc. rip
Edward owned land in Watertown some of which he sold to William Shattuck, this was prior to 1664 when title to some of the land came into question and was settled by the Selectmen of the town. Because there was no deed of sale for the to Edward, I believe he was given the land in one of the land divisions.  He also given land in western Watertown that was would later make up part of Waltham. This land was part of the "Great Division", which was divided into four squadrons and divided between the original proprietors. In 1687 a Goody Sanders was ordered by the selectmen to spin yard in exchange for corn, this was most likely Mary Sanderson.

There is no record of death for either Mary or Edward. However, Edward was named in his brother Robert's will. He left him money to buy a cow. 


Children of Edward and Mary
Jonathan b. 1646 m. Abia Bartlett in 1669, became a Deacon in the church and an upstanding member of society.
Abigail b. about 1660 m. Oct 27, 1687 Shubael Child in Watertown she died 8 Oct 1693, her husband shortly thereafter became mentally ill, was locked in an unheated jail in the middle of winter and froze to death. 
Hannah b. about 1670 m. Aug 6, 1695 Richard Norcross in Watertown 
Hester baptized in Watertown in 1686, described as a "young person"
Unknown


related posts:
Surname Sanders, Sanderson, Saunders, Saunderson in the record
What's in a Name? two case studies on names, one being Sanders/Sanderson
Andrew White of Watertown
William Sanderson of Watertown
Robert Sanderson of Watertown

Sources:
[1] Northamptonshire, England, Church of England Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1532-1812 (this is very difficult to read but it has been confirmed that the name is Edward Saundersonne. 

[2]Hunter, J. (1875). Hallamshire: The history and topography of the parish of Sheffield in the county of York. With historical and descriptive notices of the parishes of Ecclesfield, Hansworth, Treeton, and Whiston, and of the chapelry of Bradfield. A new ed., London: Virtue and Co.; [etc., etc.].

[3] Watertown records: comprising the first and second books of town proceedings with the lands grants and possessions, also the proprietors' book and the first book and supplement of births and deaths and marriages Historical Society of Watertown (Mass.). Watertown, MA, USA: Fred G. Baker, 1894. (The marriage is recorded as happening during the 8th month, this is not August, it is October as the Puritan calendar began in March.)

Jennifer Monaghan, Learning to Read and Write in Colonial America
Watertown Records
Robert Charles Anderson, The Great Migration Begins 1620-1633 p. 624
Richard Archer, Fissures in the Rock: New England in the 17th Century
Roger Thompson, Divided We Stand, Watertown 1630-1680 


comments, challenges, quibbles welcome
please site all sources

John and Joan Chadwick of Watertown and Malden, Massachusetts (1600-1681)

I've been putting this bio off for a while as there is much confusion on the Internet about him. There are several men named John ...