Saturday, July 5, 2014

John Gage of Ipswich and Bradford

In a previous post I wrote about the ancestry of John Gage who left England with the first wave of Great Migration immigrants and settled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.  He probably lived for a few years in Boston  but soon removed north and was among the first settlers of the new town (plantation) that would eventually be known as Ipswich.  Here is what I know about his life after his arrival in Massachusetts.

boston
John Gage is believed to have been among the first setters of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.  He was the fiftieth  member of the First Church of Boston. This would indicate that he arrived in the year 1630 and that he had come with the Winthrop Fleet. Although I have read multiple times that John sailed on the Arabella, the flagship of the fleet, there is no passenger list for the ship and there is no proof that he was on that particular ship. It has also been claimed that his wife Amee was on the Arabella.  Not only is there no proof that she was on the Arabella or any of the other ships in Winthrop's fleet, there is no proof that John and Amee were even married at the time of his immigration.

Nothing is known of John Gage and his time in Boston.  The first few years of the colony were a time of hunger and hard work as the colonist struggled to learn how to survive in their new home.  Hundreds died, hundreds more took one look around and headed back to England. Living in Massachusetts in 1630 was not for the faint of heart. Despite the hardships, men women and children continued to pour into Boston and Salem. There was abundant land for those with the stamina to adapt and survive.


ipswich
In 1633 John Winthrop the Younger, son of Governor John Winthrop, established the new plantation of Ipswich some 50 miles to the north of Boston. John Gage joined John Winthrop along with 12 or so other men on his expedition to start the new plantation.  Many of my early American ancestors lived in Ipswich, for at least a time, but he was the earliest resident. It's funny to think that all these ancestors, who I know so little about, all lived together in the same town and knew, probably more than they wanted to, intimate detail about each others lives.

Ipswich rapidly became a center for trade and craftsmen.  My ancestor Richard Kimball, a wheelwright, was lured away from Watertown.  John Gage worked as a carpenter, a trade with plenty of work.  Despite having a trade, most men had to farm their land to make ends meet.  Besides, land was where the money was, and the buying and selling of lots started almost as soon as they were handed out.

lot laying
During the 5 August 1634 meeting of the General Court of Massachusetts it was declared that the new plantation of Agawam was thereafter the town of Ipswich.  At a General Court held in March of 1634/35 it was ordered that John Winthrop, John Endicott and John Humphrey had the power to divide the land belonging to the new town.  With that, the business of setting up a town began. John Gage was chosen to be one of several lot layers for the town.  Lot layers established the boundaries of each land grant.

The land, of course, was not given out equally to all men.  John Winthrop got the largest grant, he was given 300 acres in the first division of land. His land was near the wonderfully named Labour in Vain Creek.  The first land given to John Gage was part of a meadow, his share was four acres.  He was also allotted an additional 6 acres of land, described as "lyeing upon this neck of land the town standeth". Almost as soon as the first lots were given out, questions arose as too boundaries.  The town lot layers were frequently called on to settle boundary disputes.

john's land
John Gage was given various plots of land including meadows and marshes.  He had land near the Egypt River and near the Chewbacco River, in what is today the town of Essex. His house lot was on the Ipswich River, south of the Meeting House Green on what is today called Green Street. Ipswich has many houses that survived from his time, but his did not.

John's land was where the brown house is. 
The first houses were probably just log cabins, sawmills had yet to be established and any planks of wood would have been cut by hand. When milled planks were available the log houses would have been replaced by something more substantial. The house lots were required by law to be fenced, and women would have their vegetable and herb gardens near their house.  We don't know how long the Gage's lived by the Ipswich River but according to Thomas Franklin Water, John Gage built a house on his land near the Egypt River. This area became known as Ipswich Village and John Gage lived on the road to Rowley.

john and amee
John Gage married Amee Unknown some time prior to the 1638 birth of their first child. Their marriage was not recorded nor was the birth of their child. Amee's surname is unknown.  She may have been related to Henry Kingsbury or maybe she was a Wilford.  In either case there is nothing other than some references to uncles and cousins, nothing definitive.  In fact, the only reason we know her name was Amee was because she was named in a 1654 land deed. For me she remains, Amee Unknown. John parents are also unknown but there is a strong possibility that he was the John Gage baptized in Kersey in 1606, son of John and Jane Lufkin Gage of Boxford.  If you are under the impression that John was the son of Sir John Gage and Penelope D'Arcy then please see my previous post as this is just not true.

Amee and John had 6 children, all boys.  All survived to adulthood, a rare feat, but three of the men died in their 30's. We don't know when Amee was born but she died in June of 1658. Her youngest son was ten. Her husband waited 5 months before he remarried. Most widows and widowers married fairly soon after the death of their spouse, mostly for practical reasons.  Women needed a husband to provide for them and men needed women to keep their house and family.

children
1. Samuel b. about 1638 Ipswich, m. 10 June 1674 Bradford, Faith Stickley, d. 20 July 1676 age 38

2. Daniel b. about 1639 Ipswich, m. 3 May 1675, Bradford,  Sarah Kimball, d. Haverhill Nov 1705 age 66

3. Benjamin b. about 1641, m. (1) step-sister Mary Keyes, (2) 11 Oct 1671 Prudence Lever, d. 10 Oct. 1672 age 31

4. Jonathan b. about 1643, m. 12 Nov 1667 Andover,  Hester Chandler, d. 15 March 1675 age 32

5. Nathaniel b. about 1645, m. Bradford, by 1696 Mary Green, d. 3 Apr 1728, age 83

6. Josiah b. about 1648, m. (1) Lydia Ladd, (2) Mary Dow, d. Haverhill 5 July 1717 age 69

wife number two
John married widow Sarah Keyes of Newbury on 7 November 1658 in Ipswich.  Her English ancestry is unknown as is her maiden name. Sarah's first husband, Robert Keyes, died 1647, so she was widowed for a considerable time.  The fact that she had 8 young children may have affected her desirability as a marriage partner and it was not until her older children were themselves married did she in fact remarry. Five years after their marriage, Benjamin, the son of John, married Mary, the daughter of Sarah.  After John's death Sarah returned to Newbury, probably living with one of her children, and died there in 1705. Her probated estate contained only household items.

rowley/bradford
John's land on the Egypt river was very close to the north border between Ipswich in Rowley and on today's map it looks like it is in Rowley. The borders between the towns were constantly changing and new towns were created from the large original towns. A family could live a house on the same piece of land and over the course of 50 years find themselves living in three different towns. John, as a lot layer, was frequently called on to run the border between two towns.

In 1660 John began selling parcels of his land in Ipswich. In 1665, John Gage of Rowley, purchased 300 acres of land in Rowley.  This tract of land was in the part of Rowley that would very soon become the new town of Bradford.  Today Bradford is a part of the the town of Haverhill, MA.

Will of John Gage
rip

John Gage died on 24 Mar 1672/73 in Bradford aged about 68 years old.  His son Benjamin had died the year prior, but all his other son were alive and named in his will as was his widow Sarah.  He named all his surviving sons as administrators of his estate. He made provisions for the care of his wife and then divided his estate among his sons.  He owned 350 acres of land plus some acreage on an Island. He must have owned more land at one time as he gave his son Benjamin land at the time of his second marriage to Prudence Lever.

My family tree from John Gage and Amee Unknown:
John Gage and Jane Lufkin (possibly)
John Gage and Amee Unknown
Nathaniel Gage and Mary Weeks Green
Mary Gage and Benjamin Thurston
James Chadwick - Mary Thurston
Hannah Chadwick - Jonathan Blanchard
James Blanchard - Phebe Carter
Chloe Blanchard - Samuel Thornton
John C. Thornton - Jennie Clover Rowell

Sources:
Anderson, Robert Charles. The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England, 1620-1633. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1995. Print.

Records of the First Church of Boston 1630-1868 found at the website: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu

Probate Records for Essex County MA via www.americanancestors.com 

Records and Files of the Quarterly Court of Essex via university of Virginia website

Schofield, George A. The Ancient Records of the Town of Ipswich: Vol. 1, from 1634 to 1650. Ipswich, MA: G.A. Schofield, 1899. Print.

Waters, Thomas Franklin, Sarah Goodhue, and John Wise. Ipswich in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Ipswich, MA: Ipswich Historical Society, 1905. Print.

Waters, Thomas Franklin. Ipswich Village and the Old Rowley Road. Salem, MA: Printed for the Society, 1914. Print.









Monday, June 23, 2014

Abraham Kimball and Mary Green of Bradford, MA

Abraham Kimball was the son of Benjamin and Mercy Hazeltine Kimball.  He was born on 24 March 1678 in Bradford, MA.  The ancestry of his wife, Mary Green, has not been determined.  I thought at one point I had her figured out, but I am not sure.  So, here is what I know and/or think I know about Abraham and Mary.

the greening of bradford

In about 1695, long time bachelor, Nathaniel Gage, aged about 50, of Bradford, finally married.  His wife was Mary Green. 
In a deed signed 29 Dec 1699 Andrew Mitchell and his wife Abigail, of Charlestown, sold to Thomas and John Green, formerly of Malden, their land in Bradford. On 7 August 1700, Thomas Green married Hannah Hazeltine, daughter of Robert Hazeltine, Jr. of Bradford. John might have been already married at the time of their arrival, as there is no Bradford marriage recorded for him, but his wife's name was recorded as Rebecca on their land deeds. On 8 May 1700 Abraham Kimball of Bradford married a second woman named Mary Green. So who were these people named Green and were they all related to each other.

The deed states that the two men John and Thomas were lately of Malden.  When Thomas died his brother Ebeneezer Green was involved in the probate as was a Samuel Palmer, who was married to their sister Elizabeth Green. Ebenezer identified his father as Thomas Green of Malden. Now there were a couple of Green families living in Malden at that time. Of those families one in particular seems to be a match to the Greens that moved to Bradford.  

On 22 March 1676 a Thomas Green married Mary Weeks in Malden.  They had five children: Thomas, John, Mary, Ebenezer and Elizabeth.  Thomas Sr. died in Malden on 28 April 1694. This then would seem to be our Green family.  There is one hiccup which I'll talk about later that might cause a problem for the Mary who married Abraham. 

abraham and mary

On 8 May 1700 Abraham Kimball and Mary Green got married. He was 22 and she was 17. Seven months later their first child, Mary, was born. Hum, was this a shotgun wedding? Two years later, Mary gave birth to a second child, a son they named Ephraim and in 1705 another girl was born and given the name Mehitabel. 

Some four years before his marriage, Abraham's father, Benjamin Kimball, died a fairly wealthy man. Abraham inherited land and a part share in a sawmill from his father the total value of which was around 43 pounds. In August 1706 John Green sold Abraham land in Bradford at at cost of 6 pounds. And, in February 1707 his younger brother Samuel, sold him his land and share in the sawmill that he had inherited from their father.  

So far so good, Abraham is able to buy more land and his family is growing. But Abraham's story doesn't end well.  He died age 30 on 25 Feb 1707/08. 


life goes on

Abraham's estate was inventoried in June 1708 and valued at over 300 pounds.  He had cows, pigs, sheep, horses, and a yoke of oxen.  He had also bought land in Haverhill.  His widow, Mary, was only entitled to a third of the estate, commonly called the Widow's third. The other two thirds would be divided between her children. Even the house was divided, Mary could live in the bottom rooms of the house. She could use the east end of the barn. Of course her children were very young at the time, they would not get their inheritance until they came of age. Abraham's brother Samuel was appointed guardian of her son Ephraim, the girls were not given a separate guardian.

Mary was still a young woman when her husband died, only about 24.  She did as most young widows, remarried within a year of her husbands death. Her second husband was 23 year old James Tiler (Tyler), they married in Bradford on 19 Jan 1708/09. Their first child was born 11 months later; a girl named Dorothy.  The next child, at least the next living child, was not born until 1712.  The baby was a boy and he was named Abraham in honor of Abraham Kimball, which was a common naming pattern.  The first child of a second marriage was frequently named for the  deceased partner of the husband or wife. 

maine

According to the Tyler Genealogy, James Tyler began buying and selling land in Maine by 1716. He must have been travelling between Bradford and Maine for some years.  He first had land in Cape Porpoise which is near Kennebunkport. Today it is only about 60 miles by road, but he probably traveled by  boat up the coast. In a 1721 deed he styled himself as James Tyler of Bradford, alias Arundel. 

The to and froing from Bradford to Maine might explain why Mary did not give birth again until 10 September 1721.  She and James had another daughter who they named Abigail. Three months later,  on 17 December 1721, Mary died. She was 38 years old. 

James, left with three small children, one of whom was a three month old infant, did what most men did; found himself a new wife.  He married Phoebe Royall by 1724.  he also permanently removed to Maine. Phoebe had only one child, a son named Royall Tyler. In his will written in 1748, James divided his estate leaving some land to his oldest son Abraham and to his well beloved son Royall. James explains in his will that he is not giving Abraham a larger share because he "hath proved to be a very undutiful son to me". 

It is clear by his will that Mary's daughter Dorothy Tyler Leavitt was dead by 1748.  He left a bequeath of land for her children.  Abigail was alive and married and she received land as well.  

mary, ephraim and mehitable

Mary's Kimball children lost not only their mother in 1721 but also soon said goodbye to to their step-father and their half sibling who moved off to Maine.  I wonder if these two sets of children every saw or heard from each other again.  In 1721 Mary was 21, Ephraim was 19 and Mehitable 16. But Mary's childen had grown up fast.  Mary Kimball, her eldest daughter, married at the young age of 17.  Her husband was Edmund Chadwick of Bradford. Mehitable, her sister, married at age 16 to Obadiah Perry of Bradford. 

back to the greens

So, back to the Green family. Mary Green Gage gave birth to two more children. They were Mary and Nathaniel.  This is my sticking point on whether or not Mary Weeks Green Gage, and finally Jewett, was the mother of Mary Green Kimball.  Would she have named two daughters Mary?  They were separated by about 15 years and two last names. It is possible that Nathaniel Gage wanted his daughter named Mary.  If she wasn't the daughter of Mary Weeks Green then who was she?  There were no other Green families in Bradford and the closest ones were in Salem, about 24 miles away. How would 22 year old Abraham meet and court a girl so far away.  All the other Green children moved to Bradford and this explanation works best for me, but this is just an opinion.  

my Green - Kimball ancestry:

Richard Kimball - Ursula Scott
Benjamin Kimball - Mercy Hazeltine
Abraham Kimball - Mary Green
Mary Kimball - Edmund Chadwick
James Chadwick - Mary Thurston
Hannah Chadwick - Jonathan Blanchard
James Blanchard - Phebe Carter
Chloe Blanchard - Samuel Thornton
John C. Thornton - Jennie Clover Rowell

sources:

Brigham, William Irving Tyler, "The Tyler Genealogy: The Descendants of Job Tyler of Andover, Mass, 1619-1700", Vol 1, 1912

Kingsbury, John Dennison, "A Memorial History of Bradford", Haverhill, 1883


Sunday, June 15, 2014

Benjamin Kimball and Mercy Hazeltine of Bradford, MA


birthday
Sometimes all we can find about our ancestors is the date of their birth and death, if we are lucky. Several hundred years ago, these dates were not as important as they are today and so may have gone unrecorded. Benjamin Kimball was the youngest son of Richard and Ursula Kimball of Ipswich, MA.  A cursory search of the internet will tell you that he was born on 12 May 1637.  A check of ancestry.com show hundreds of family trees that include Benjamin and his birth is listed as 12 May 1637.  So how do they know this, where does this date come from and more importantly is it correct? 

beginnings
Benjamin's parent's were born, raised and married in England. They already had a large family including eight children when they decided to risk their lives and their fortune on starting a new life in New England, and it paid off. Richard was a successful wheelwright/farmer who quickly began accruing land. 

Ursula gave birth to three more children, Caleb, Benjamin and Elizabeth.  They were born either in Watertown or Ipswich and their births went unrecorded. Since most women of child bearing age gave birth about every two years, the birth years of these children are estimated as 1635, 1637 and 1639. Where did May 12th come from?  I think I know, but we''ll get to that later.

the least of my brothers
Henry, first born child of Richard and Ursula was a married man when Benjamin was 3.  He was born in 1615 and died in 1676 age 60He remained in Watertown when his parents left for Ipswich, but he followed them some years later, eventually settling in Wenham. His father left him 90 pounds in his will. 

Richard Kimball Jr. was born in 1622 he died in 1676, age 54Richard also settled in Wenham and at one time was the wealthiest man in town, paying the largest tax rate. Richard received a bequeath of 40 pounds. 

John was born in 1631 he died in 1698 age 67.  He lived and farmed in Ipswich, but bought and sold land in adjacent towns including Salem.  He inherited 25 pounds from his father. 

Thomas  was born in 1633 he was killed by Indians in 1676, he was 43 years old. He had first settled in Wenham but eventually moved to Bradford. He also had purchased a 1/4 interest in a sawmill on Oyster River in Hampton, New Hampshire in 1653. he lived there for some years before moving to Rowley in 1660.  He also seems to have been the first of the Kimballs to venture into New Hampshire. Hampton is only about 20 miles to the north. He received 25 pounds from his father. It is interesting to note that Thomas' father Richard married the Widow Margaret Dow of Hampton in 1661, did Thomas introduce them?

Caleb was born in 1635 in Ipswich, he died in 1682 age 47.  He was a prosperous farmer and lived in Ipswich.  He too bought and sold land including his older brother Richard's house and land in Ipswich. Caleb was the only son to actually receive land from his father. 

Benjamin last son, born in 1637, he chose to settle in Bradford where he died in 1696 age 59.  He received 25 pounds from his father plus two oxen which he had received prior to Richard's death. 

Only one of the six brothers lived past his 60th year, Benjamin made it to 59 and the only brother to outlive him was his older brother John who died two years after him. Three of his brothers died in the same year 1676 only a year after the passing of their father. 

adulthood
Benjamin made his living working as a carpenter. I have read that he lived briefly in Exeter, NH but I cannot find any proof or documentation of this. He lived in Salisbury for a few years but settled in the section of Rowley, known as Merrimac, that eventually became the town of Bradford.  Some of the land he owned in Bradbury butted up to the Merimack River and his father in law, Robert Hazeltine was a neighbor.  So, how did he come to own the land.  Every bio of Benjamin includes the statement that he bought land on 12 May 1663 from Elizabeth Starrett of Haverhill. Is this where the date attributed to his date of birth of comes from? Hum, might be.  Benjamin is also said to have bought some of his brother Thomas' land in 1667.  I cannot find these deeds.  The location of some of his land is described in an Essex County Court recording of a 1664 deed of land bought by Abraham Perkins. This deed was not recorded in the Essex Deed Book either. If anyone knows where these deeds are recorded Please let me know.

In 1669 Benjamin and Mercy sold 40 acres of their land back to the town of Bradford.  This land was intended to support the new town minister. Judging by the deeds registered by his sons, after his and Mercy's deaths, Benjamin had quite a bit of land in Haverhill, Bradford and Amesbury.

random weird court case involving benjamin
In 1659 Benjamin and his brother Thomas were deponents in a lengthy court case involving Henry Green of Hampton and William Edmonds of Lynn. Henry it seems had a daughter Mary who had a nasty sore on her lower leg.  Henry had taken her to see Mr. Charles Starre, a doctor in Charlestown.  He was unable to heal the wound. Henry then took her to the home of William and Ann Edmonds. Ann said that she could cure the sore and Henry agreed to pay them with a colt. Mary stayed with the Edmonds in Lynn for about one year. The cure for her leg, which Ann said suffered from "the King's evil", which thought to be tuberculosis infection of the bone, include removing about 5 inches of her leg bone. From the sound of it, it's amazing that she survived the treatment, but Ann Edmonds was by all accounts a competent care giver and ran a quasi-hospital out of the tavern she ran with her husband.  
When Mary was deemed as cured as they could get her, Willliam Edmonds asked for his colt. He got one, but not the one he wanted.  All this played out over several years in court. Thomas and Benjamin testified on multiple occasions about what they had seen or heard. When William finally got the colt he asked Benjamin, who lived in Salisbury to keep it for him. He apparently really like it, because in 1662, William Edmonds took Benjamin to court to try to get the colt back. 

marriage and children
Okay, back on track here. In 1660 Benjamin's brother Caleb married Anna Hazeltine of Rowley.  In 1661 Benjamin married her sister, Mercy.  They were the daughters of Robert and Ann Hazeltine. Mercy was born 16 August 1642 in Rowley. Benjamin and Mercy settled in the area of Rowley that would become Bradford.  Some of Benjamin's land bordered that of her father's. Thomas Kimball also lived in Rowley. Life was hard, but at least Benjamin and Mercy had family nearby.

Benjamin and Mercy had 11 children, 10 of whom lived to adulthood.  Two died relatively young, Abraham age 29 and Ebenezer age 30. Their brother Richard, who was very active in Bradford died age 46, Anna lived the longest, dying at age 83. The births of children whose names are starred are recorded in either Salisbury or Bradford town records. Richard's date of birth is up for grabs, I have seen two different dates.  

*Anna b. 23 Dec 1661 in Salisbury d. 1 Jan 1743/44 age 83, m. Richard Barker
Mercy b.  3 Dec 1663 d. in Feb 1663/4 infant
Richard b. 30 Dec 1665 or 3 Dec 1664 d. 10 Jan 1711 age 46, m. Mehitable Day
*Elizabeth b. 24 July 1669 d. 24 Aug 1727 age 58  m. Edward Carleton of Haverhill
*David b. 26 Jul 1671 d. 1743 age 71 in Bradford, m. Elizabeth Gage
*Jonathan b. 26 Nov 1673 d. 30 Sep 1749 age 75 in Bradford, m. Lydia Day
*Robert b. 6 Mar 1676 d. 24 Feb 1744 age 67
*Abraham b. 24 Mar 1677/8, d. 25 Feb 1708 age 29 m. Mary Green 
*Samuel 28 Mar 1680 d. 1739 age 58
*Ebenezer 20 June 1684 d. 23 Jan 1715 age 30 in Bradford, m. Ruth Eaton
*Abigail 8 Sept 1686 d. 29 April 1738 age 52, m. Moses Day


the kimball tavern
Still standing today, in the heart of what was Bradford, is the Kimball Tavern.  Built by Benjamin in about 1690, it was in the family for at least 200 years.  Today it is an antiques store but it is wonderful to see it has been preserved. As early as 1680, Benjamin had been "licensed to keep a public house of entertainment for strangers and others and to draw beer and cider". 

The tavern was on a key road that went from Portland, Maine down to Boston.  It would have been an ideal stopping place before crossing the Merrimack River.  Today the area once known as Bradford is part of the City of Haverhill, and the Tavern is quite close to the river on Salem St. at it's junction with Main St. It is said to be haunted by members of the Kimball family. 

religious life
The town of Bradford had hired a Mr. Symms to preach in 1669, but he was not an ordained minister, and it seems for this reason they were not officially a church.  On 31 Oct. 1682  a group of local ministers, from Salem, Ipswich, Rowley an elsewhere came together in Bradford to determine whether or not Mr. Symms was up to snuff.  They advised the community that they thought he was an acceptable candidate and the community agreed by unanimous vote on 28 November.  On 27 Dec 1682 the church was officially organized and Benjamin Kimball was one of the first male members to sign the covenant. Mr. Symms was ordained the same day.  In January of 1682/83 the first women of the town were made full members including Mercy Kimball.  Benjamin took his freeman's oath, which was dependent of full church membership,  on 25 March 1683.

rip
Benjamin died on 11 June 1696.  He was buried in the Bradford Burying Ground.  He was 59 years old, young by today's standards.  He was lucky he only buried one child, the infant Mercy.  His wife, died some eleven years later on 5  Jan 1708. Her son Abraham, my ancestor died the next month at the very young age of 29. They too are buried in the Bradford cemetery. 

Benjamin died a fairly well off man,  but he doesn't seem to have written a will. His estate was inventoried on 3 July 1696 and the land was divided between his widow and his children. The estate was valued at over 1000 pounds. After Mercy's death the rest of the land was divided.  If his grandfather Richard Kimball had remained in England, his grandson Benjamin would never had been able to accrue such a large amount of land and wealth.  But the riches came at a great cost. The very real fear of Indian attacks, disease and other calamities were an every day part of life. Death lurked around every tree and bend in the road. 

my kimball ancestry
Richard Kimball and Ursula Scott
Benjamin Kimball - Mercy Hazeltine
Abraham Kimball - Mary Green
Mary Kimball - Edmund Chadwick
James Chadwick - Mary Thurston
Hannah Chadwick - Jonathan Blanchard
James Blanchard - Phebe Carter
Chloe Blanchard - Samuel Thornton
John C. Thornton - Jennie Clover Rowell

sources:
Gage, Thomas, "The History of Rowley Anciently Including Bradford, Boxford and Georgetown, from the year 1639 to the present time", Boston, 1840.

Zwicker, Roxie, J., Haunted Pubs of New England: Raising Spirits of the Past, The History Press, 2007, p. 44 

www.bradfordburialground.com

familyseach - Essex County Land Deeds

americanancestors.com - Essex County Probate Records