Saturday, September 5, 2015

Eleanor Thornton: An Unfortunate Woman

This is a brief story about the life of Eleanor Thornton. What little I know about her was gleaned from the probate records of her father, William, her mother Eleanor and her own probate. Life in the 19th century was difficult at best. Eleanor's life seems to have been one trial after another, up to and including her death. I hope there was some balance in her life and that there were some good times. Here is what I know about Eleanor Thornton.

Eleanor Thornton was born  in Thornton, New Hampshire. She was named for her mother, Eleanor, whose maiden name is unknown. He father was William Thornton, who was born in County Tyrone, Ireland in 1713. He had come with his family to New England in about 1720. He had married and raised a family with his first wife Dorcas Little, who died in 1763 in Schenectady, NY. Just before the start of the American Revolution, William returned to New Hampshire with a new wife and second family and settled in the new town of Thornton, which was named for his brother, Matthew Thornton.

death of a father
William was probably in his 50's when he remarried and when he died on 27 November 1790 he was 77 years old. He left a pregnant wife with small children. His daughter Eleanor, whose birth was not recorded was at least eight years old. Her older siblings also living in Thornton were; her half brother William, her brother Samuel, and sister Dorcas. She had two younger sisters, Sarah and Catherine and one younger brother Abraham. It is possible that her mother was born in New York and so had no close relatives in New Hampshire to help her. Eleanor struggled to keep things going, but by 1797 she threw in the proverbial towel. She petitioned the probate court to appoint another administrator to her deceased husband's estate. She could not pay off William's debts.

hard times
In 1797 the Judge of the Probate Court appointed Mr. John Brown to be, not only administrator of the estate, but also guardian of Eleanor and her younger siblings. The children would most likely have been taken from their mother's home and placed either with John Brown or with another family to be raised. Eleanor was at least fourteen years old at that time. I imagine she would have been put to work in the home of a local family.

The struggling widow, Eleanor Thornton, remarried in 1798, her husband was Benjamin Avery of Thornton. She had been living on her deceased husband's farm for the eight years since his death, presumably with all her children. In the new accounting of William's estate she was required to pay rent for those eight years. A stark reminder that women had little rights in those days and they could not inherit their husbands land. The new administrator sent notices to all the local towns calling in anyone who was owed money from the estate. He also advertised the sale of the William's farm. The widow would keep her dower right to 1/3 of the land, but the rest was sold.

Eleanor Thornton Avery's oldest children, Samuel and Dorcas, were both married by 1802. Samuel married Katherine Baker of Campton and after a few years left New Hampshire for Canada. He eventually settled in Wheelock, Vermont. Dorcas married John Durgin of Sanbornton, in Sanbornton. After the birth of their first child  they moved to Campton, very near to Thornton. Sanbornton is some twenty eight miles from Campton. What was Dorcas doing there? Was she sent there for work? It seems likely to me that that was the case. In 1818, John Durgin returned to Sanbornton to collect Eleanor and all her belongings and bring her back to Campton. So it would seem that the two sisters went together to Sanbornton.

Eleanor's sister Catherine, never married. In the 1830 census she lived alone in Campton. She would eventually end up living, first with John and Dorcas, and later with her nephew. In the 1860 census she was called a pauper. If their sister Sarah, married there is no record of it, and if she did her married name is unknown, making her impossible to trace. There is also no evidence for what became of their brother Abraham or the child that Eleanor, her mother, was carrying when her father died.

poor choices
Their mother, Eleanor, did not choose wisely when she remarried. Her new husband was or later became a bit of a bum. The town fathers, fearing the town would become responsible for the care of Eleanor and Benjamin went to the probate court seeking guardianship over Benjamin and his estate. They described him as being idle and inattentive to his business and placing his family in a precarious situation. Benjamin did not object to the actions taken by the town, and agreed to allowing William Thornton, step grandson of Eleanor, to administer what was left of his estate.

Benjamin and Eleanor's belongings were duly inventoried. The lived in a small house on about 25 acres. They owned a table and five chairs, one feather bed, some old tubs, cooking utensils, a spinning wheel, one cow, one calf and one pig.  The total value was about $360.00. Not much. The records don't tell us what happened to Benjamin, he died by 1835 and Eleanor lived until 1845. She must have been quite elderly at her death. After her demise, her dower was sold to pay off the remainder of William's debt.

hard life
With no husband of her own, Eleanor, the daughter, now a spinster, toiled on. It's hard to tell, but it would seem that her health was of some concern. She consulted a Doctor, John Kimball, in August of 1822, March of 1823 and Sept of 1824 for advice and medicine. We know that she was very sick in August of 1824 and she lived with the Durgin's for at least two weeks while Dorcas nursed her back to health. Eleanor also saw a Doctor Samuel Fish in Sep 1823 and August of 1824.

In March of 1825 Eleanor, her health seemingly recovered, began working for a man named John V. Barron of Peeling. I'm not sure what her job description was but it was most likely in a domestic setting. She was to earn 50 cents per week. In June Barron sold her seven yards of calico, silk thread and some tobacco, she must have intended to make a new dress.

her final sickness
On the 28th of July she was too sick to work. Her employer, John Barron, hired a man and sent his horse and chaise to Campton to fetch a nurse to care for Eleanor. He also sent to Plymouth  for a doctor. Dr. Robbins and Dr. Simpson, both from Plymouth, 18 miles away, arrived to treat her. On August 1st supplies were purchased to help treat the sick Eleanor. John Barron bought eight, yes eight, gallons of New England Rum, Madeira Wine, tea and loaf sugar. John Durgin also bought three lemons, candles and more sugar.

The local "Pharmacist" provided medicine ordered by the doctors. These medications, in the form of tinctures and elixirs included: Sugar of Lead (lead acetate), Calomel (a cathartic used to treat fevers), Diaphoretic Powder (an opium preparation) Tincturia Opii Camphorata (more opium), Valeriana (made from Valerian, it was used as an antispasmodic and to help sleep) and Hydragyri ( a form of Mercury, and we know how good that is for you). There were several other tinctures which I could not decipher, but I'm sure they were probably just as useless, if not downright detrimental, as these.

As Eleanor's illness progressed more nurses and attendants were called in. Dorcas Durgin and her daughter as well as Catherine Thornton came to help nurse her. John Barron's wife, Oliver Barron's wife, and a local woman named Jenny Sabetee all sat with her. Several men were also in attendance including John Durgin, Jenny Sabatee's husband and a man named Timothy Glover. Dr. Robbins visited Eleanor again on the 13th of August. John Barron bought an additional 2 gallons of rum and more tobacco the same day. I'm not sure if the rum was for the patient or the nurses.

Despite their best efforts, Eleanor died on the 15th of August. Timothy Glover dug her grave and John Barron paid for her coffin.

Almost immediately the process of probating her meager estate began. Eleanor's cousin, William Thornton, who was also the guardian of her mother and step father, recommended John Dugin to act as administrator of her estate. Notices were posted to call in all her debts including all costs accrued during her "last sickness", as it was called. The doctor's bills, medicine bills, all that rum had to be paid. The nurses, including her sisters, wanted to be paid. John Barron wanted to be paid for housing her family and for doing her laundry. Eleanor also had outstanding debts for cloth and other sundries. It seems, no act of human kindness came without a price tag.

An inventory of her estate was done. She had very little. Some furniture, a chest of drawers, a pair of gold ear bobs, an earthenware bowl.  I guess she never got to make that last dress as the cloth was inventoried. The majority of her estate was her personal clothing. John Durgin brought all of her belongings from the Barron's house in Peeling back to Campton. Dorcas washed all of her clothing and prepared it for sale, she, of course, asked to be paid for it. The sale was advertised in the New Hampshire Statesman and the Concord Register as was the call for all claims against her estate. The inventory showed that she had about $163.00 worth of personal property.

By June of 1827 her estate was settled. She had barely enough to pay her debts. I don't know where she was buried. The town of Peeling is now a ghost town. If she is buried there, she has very little company. Hopefully her sister brought her back to Campton, but as there was no bill for it, it may not have happened.

New Hampshire, Grafton County, Probate Estate Files; Author: United States. National Archives and Records Administration. Northeast Region; Probate Place: Grafton, New Hampshire

John Savary, A Compendium of Domestic Medicine, (Churchill and Sons, London, England : 1865).

"Multiple Classified Advertisements."[Concord, New Hampshire] 17 Feb. 1827: n.p.19th Century U.S. Newspapers, Web. 7 Sept. 2015.

Saturday, August 22, 2015

Henry True and Jane Bradbury of Salisbury, MA

Henry True, son of Henry True and Israel Pike, was born in Salem, Massachusetts  on 8 March 1646. His father was a mariner by trade. He died when Henry was about thirteen years old. The date and circumstances of Henry Sr.'s death are unknown, but it would most likely have occurred in the fall of 1659. Israel and her family were living in Salisbury on land purchased by Henry in 1657 when she sold the house and property he owned in Salem. The deed of sale was recorded in November of 1659 and Henry's estate was inventoried in early 1660. The estate was not large and Israel still had small children to raise so, she did what most widows did to survive, she married. In June of 1660,  forty year old Israel married twenty four year old Joseph Fletcher, also of Salisbury. Joseph was recorded in 1653 as the servant of Samuel Hall, nothing else is known about his origins, how or when he arrived in Massachusetts.

So, here's a lady of middling age, with young children, marrying a 'toyboy' nobody, about seven months after her husbands death. If this happened today she'd be the talk of the town and her kids would be in therapy for years. But Israel had to do what was necessary to survive and most widows with young children remarried rapidly in order to secure their future. And, it seems that Joseph formed a close bond with the True children and that he cared deeply for Henry, his brother Joseph and their sister Jemima, the only True siblings to survive to adulthood.

miscarriages before marriage
Joseph Fletcher was the Salisbury Constable in 1668. He was responsible for distributing warrants and summons to court, presenting the accused to the court, collecting fines and taxes. In October of 1668 his son in law, Henry True and his wife Jane Bradbury True were presented in court for the crime of "miscarriage before marriage". What was a miscarriage before marriage you ask. Henry and Jane were married on 15 March 1668 and they welcomed a baby daughter on 30 May 1668, about two and a half months after their wedding. Miscarriages is a Puritan euphemism for premarital sex.

warning: personal opinions ahead
Jane probably knew she was pregnant by late 1667. Premarital pregnancy in the 1600s was not as rare an occurrence as you might think. Some young couple who thought, or knew, that their parents would not approve of the match, deliberately got pregnant in order to force a marriage. Jane came from a prominent Salisbury family. Her parents, Thomas and Mary Bradbury, were upstanding citizens, her father was a leader of the community. It is possible that they might not have thought Henry a suitable match for their daughter. Jane may have been afraid to tell them about the pregnancy or maybe they knew and hoped she'd miscarry or many Jane wouldn't name the father. In any event they cut it pretty close.

Jane gave birth to her daughter Mary in Hampton, New Hampshire and not in her hometown of Salisbury. Why? I cannot find anything that would lead me to believe that Henry ever lived in Hampton. But, Jane had a married sister, Mary Stanyon, who did. I think it was likely that Jane was shipped up to Hampton to deliver the baby out of shame or embarrassment to the Bradbury family. Henry and Jane spent the rest of their lives in Salisbury.

back to salisbury
Back to the court story, Henry and Jane were both fined for the pregnancy. He had to pay 3 pounds and Jane 40 shillings, which was two pounds, which was quite a bit a money in those days. In October 1668 Henry True, house carpenter, bought land and rights to the cow common for 21 pounds. The rights were for four cows and included four acres of meadow and thirty acres of upland. I'm not sure where they lived, did they have their own house or did they live with family. In any case they were back on the road to respectability.

1673 fight for salem land
Henry's mother Israel had sold the family house and land in Salem shortly after Henry Sr's death. But, Henry Sr. had been allotted forty acres, in 1649, that had never been laid out. In 1673 Henry Jr, Joseph and Israel Fletcher and the other surviving children of Henry True Sr., Joseph and Jemima, went to court in a case against the town of Salem in an effort to recover the land. Israel had gone to court in Hampton in 1659, showing that she was the administrator of Henry's estate, including the allotted land. The family lost their suit, the town of Salem had apparently warned everyone with an interest in the land that they had to claim it by 1661 or lose it forever. The last remaining tie to his birthplace was gone.

social climbing
By 1676 any lingering stink from Henry and Jane's youthful shenanigans was long gone. In May of that  year Henry took the Freemans Oath. In November he was selected for the Jury of Trials.  He accomplished the ultimate Puritan distinction in 1677 by becoming a full member of the Church of Salisbury. Everyone was required to go to church, but to become a full member required a soul baring confession that many men and women balked at. His mother, Mrs. Fletcher, and his wife Jane were also full members, but his step-father Joseph was not.

From the beginning of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, all able bodied men from age 16 to 60 were required to train for their local militia. Henry rose through the ranks to eventually become a Captain in the militia. Other than the psychological trauma, Salisbury was not affected physically by King Philip's War in 1676. The later wars brought the violence of Indian attack closer to home. In late 1689 Indians attacked and killed many residents of Dover and other coastal towns in New Hampshire. In a November meeting of the Essex County Court, Lt. Henry True, his brother Sgt. Joseph True and the other members of the Salisbury Militia were ordered to "range about the outskirts" of the town of Salisbury.  They were to report and suspicious activity. Robert Pike, Henry and Joseph's uncle, was Captain of the Troop and Henry's father in law, Thomas Bradbury, was Captain of the Fort. Joseph Fletcher was also a member of the militia at that time and called upon to safeguard their town.

On 4 July 1706   the Indian Wars were practically on Salisbury's door step. The neighboring town of Amesbury, which was an off shoot of Salisbury, was attacked and quite a few men, women and children were killed. A report of the event was sent to Captain Henry True. In 1710 the men of Salisbury were called on to come to the relief of the New Hampshire town of Exeter. Although some say that Henry True was sent, it seems to me as if it was his son as the name is listed as Corporal Henry True. In any case the True family men did their duty in the defense of their town and Colony.

children of henry and jane
1. Mary b. 30 May 1668 Hampton, NH, m. 5 Feb 1688/9 Ephraim Eaton (Ephraim d. 8 June 1723 not Mary, she is mention in father's 1723 will)
2. William b. 6 June 1670, m. Eleanor Stephens, d. 18 March 1733/34 age 64
3. Henry b. 6 Jan 1673,m. 20 Dec 1699 Abigail French, d. 1  Nov 1722 age 49
4. Jane b. 5 Dec 1676, m. 16 June 1702 Edward French, d. 24 March 1715 age 39 
5. John b. 23 Feb 1678, m. 16 June 1702 Martha Merrill, living in 1736
6. Jemima b. 16 March 1681, m. 30 Oct 1700 Thomas Bradbury, d. 5 Dec 1700 age 21
7. Jabez b. 19 Feb 1682/3, d. before 1685
8. Jabez b. 6 Oct 1685, m. 8 Jan 1707/8 Sarah Tappan, d. 22 May 1749 age 64

rip jane and henry
Jane and Henry both lived long lives. She died on 24 Jan 1729/30. Henry lived a further five years dying at the age of 90 on 8 September 1735. Henry was survived by only two son and possibly one daughter. The reward for living a long life was to bury most of  your children. Henry and Jane raised their children to be upstanding citizens. Their sons, William, John and Jabez, all became Deacons in the church.

In June of 1723 Henry wrote a deed/will. He divided his estate between his three living sons, William, John and Jabez and his daughter Mary True Eaton. Mary's husband Ephraim died the next month, she was mentioned in his will. Her death was not recorded and if she remarried, the marriage was also not recorded. However, Ephraim Eaton willed land in Haverhill to his son Samuel. In 1727 a Samuel Eaton sold land in Haverhill, the deed was co-signed by his mother; Mary Easton Marsh. Was this Mary True Eaton?

 In 1736, John, Jabez and the sons of the then deceased William, divided the last of the property of Captain Henry True.

Henry True and Israel Pike

Hoyt, David Webster. The Old Families of Salisbury and Amesbury, Massachusetts: With Some Related Families of Newbury, Haverhill, Ipswich, and Hampton, and of York County, Maine. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub., 1982. Print.

The Essex Antiquarian. Salem, MA: The Essex Antiquarian, 13 vols. 1897-1909. (Online database: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2006.)

Perley, Sidney. The History of Salem, Massachusetts. Salem, MA: S. Perley, 1924. Print.

Hambleton, Else L. Daughters of Eve: Pregnant Brides and Unwed Mothers in Seventeenth-century Massachusetts, (New York: Routledge, 2004). 
Learn to do a better job citing your sources with this handy Quicksheet by Elizabeth Shown Mills available at

Have a great day!