Confusion over exact numbers of Polish immigrants again becomes a problem during this period, with large under reporting, especially during the 1890s when immigration was highest. Most agree, however, that between mid-nineteenth century and World War I, some 2.5 million Poles immigrated to the United States. This wave of immigration can be further broken down to two successive movements of Poles from different regions of their partitioned country. The first to come were the German Poles, who tended to be better educated and more skilled craftsmen than the Russian and Austrian Poles. High birthrates, overpopulation, and large-scale farming methods in Prussia, which forced small farmers off the land, all combined to send German Poles into emigration in the second half of the nineteenth century. German policy vis-a-vis restricting the power of the Catholic church also played a part in this exodus. Those arriving in the United States totalled roughly a half million during this period, with numbers dwindling by the end of the century.
|Courtesy of Michiel1972 Wikipedia|
Antonie traveled from Bremen, Germany on the ship "The Oder" with five of Josef's children: Pauline, Carl, Maria, Josephine and Martha. Josef was not listed on the manifest, it is probable that he was already in Wisconsin, preparing for their arrival. His son August said that he came to America with his father when he was 15. Also on the ship manifest is a Joseph Tryba, quite possibly Antonie's brother. They all traveled in Steerage. The Oder left Bremen on September 11, 1881 and arrived in New York City on September 23rd.