Thursday, January 31, 2019

Connecticut Witches: Joan and John Carrington of Wethersfield

I recently published a novel based on the life of Hugh and Mary Parsons, accused witches of Springfield, Massachusetts. A few months before Hugh was accused by his wife and neighbors, the Carringtons were found guilty and hanged for witchcraft.  Unlike the Parsons their testimony did not survive but was their case the impetus for the subsequent accusations leveled against Hugh Parsons?  

The people of Springfield were well aware of the fate of the Carringtons. Wethersfield was a short thirty mile boat ride down the Connecticut River, and word of their arrest and trial would have quickly traveled to the towns upriver. In fact one of the strikes against Hugh, in his wife's opinion, was that he did not speak against the Carringtons. But, Hugh had a good reason to avoid speaking of witchcraft. His wife had accused Mercy Marshfield, newly arrived from Connecticut of witchcraft in 1649. She had fought back and won a slander case against Mary Parsons. The fine was steep and cost Hugh a lot of money. 

John Carrington arrived in New England by 1644. Some researchers have speculated that he was the John Corrington who, along with wife Mary, arrived in 1635 on the Susan and Ellen. But, between 1635 and 1644 there is not a single record of John. This has lead the Great Migration Project at the New England Historical and Genealogical Society to conclude that they not one and the same. [1]

John's name crops up in the court records for several offences including selling a firearm to an Indian, a serious offence. He was a carpenter by trade and a farmer by necessity. His wife's name was Joan. Not much else is know about pair. They were likely unpopular in their community and may have had some peculiarities. Or, they might have been a perfectly normal couple, either way, their world was rocked by the accusation of witchcraft. 

We have no idea of the accusations against the pair, but if they were anything like those leveled against Hugh Parson, we would find them shocking in their silliness. Hugh was accused of magicking away knifes and trowels, turning a cows milk different colors, causing aches and pains, splitting of puddings and other silly actions. Astoundingly, the magistrate, William Pynchon took the entire event seriously, possibly because of the case of the Carringtons. He may have felt he had a standard to uphold or it might have the the fact that he himself was in the dog house for his personal religious beliefs recently expressed in his self-published book which was burned in Boston. In any case, the fate of the Carringtons must have played a part in Hugh and Mary's arrests and trails. 

I can only imagine the terror this couple felt as their indictments and death sentences were read aloud in court:
John Carrington thou art indited by the name of John Carrington of Wethersfield—carpenter—, that not hauing the feare of God before thine eyes thou hast interteined ffamilliarity with Sattan the great enemye of God and mankinde and by his helpe hast done workes aboue the course of nature for wch both according to the lawe of God and the established lawe of this Commonwealth thou deseruest to dye. [2] 
 Joan Carrington thou art indited by the name of Joan Carrington, the wife of John Carrington, that not hauing the feare of God before thine eyes thou hast interteined ffamilliarity with Sattan the great enemye of God and mankinde and by his helpe hast done workes aboue the course of nature for wch both according to the lawe of God and the established lawe of this Commonwealth thou deseruest to dye.  

John and Joan were hung shortly after their trial. Justice was swift and brutal with no chance for an appeal. But that was life, short, difficult and not very sweet. It is said that they had at least one if not two children; John Jr. and a daughter Rebecca. Rebecca must have been farmed out to a local family. She survived and married in 1671 to Abraham Andrews. 

In 1672 a second woman named Mary Parsons was tried for witchcraft in Springfield, she survived and lived to die an old woman. But the scars must have been deep and the threat ever present. 

If you are interested in reading a detailed account of Hugh and Mary Parsons and a historically accurate portrayal of life in the 1650s in Puritan Massachusetts and Connecticut I recommend my novel WEAVE A WEB OF WITCHCRAFT, the story of their lives and how they came to be tried as witches. Luckily, their testimony survives and has formed the basis for my book which is available in paperback and Kindle version on Amazon. 


[1] Great Migration 1634-1635, C-F. (Online database. New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2008.) Originally published as: The Great Migration, Immigrants to New England, 1634-1635, Volume II, C-F, by Robert Charles Anderson, George F. Sanborn, Jr., and Melinde Lutz Sanborn. Boston: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 2001.

[2] Records of the Particular Court, 2: 17, 1650-51

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Genealogy Treasure in the New York State Archives: Rufus Grider and the Mohawk Valley

In these days of and and a gazillion other websites, we tend to believe that all available sources are available at the click of a mouse, albeit, we might have to pay to make that click. But this is not the case; there are many many hidden gems which contain valuable resources which can breakthrough brickwalls in our research. 

While researching my ancestors, who once inhabited the Mohawk Valley in New York State, before and during the American Revolution, I found reference to a source, called the 'Clyde Manuscript', which included the genealogy of my ancestors James and Catherine Thornton.[1] I have searched the internet for this manuscript, referred to in a book, The Family of James Thornton, Father of the Hon. Matthew Thornton, by Charles Thornton Adams. This book was first published around 1903. My grandfather had a xerox copy of the book, which I read as a young woman, and treasure to this day. But, I had never found the Clyde Manuscript, until this year. It is part of the Rufus Alexander Grider  collection in the New York State Archives in Albany, New York. 

Rufus Grider
Rufus Grider
Who was Rufus and what was he doing with the Clyde Manuscript? Rufus Alexander Grider was born April 13, 1817, in Lititz, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. The town was founded by members of the Moravian Congregation in 1756. Grider was of Swiss descent and a member of the Moravian church. Grider married at the late age of 46, he and his family resided in Bethlehem, PA until he moved to Canajoharie, New York to teach art at the local academy. He retired in 1898 and died in February of 1900. 

Grider's passion for recording the history of the Mohawk Valley began in 1886 when he sketched Johnson Hall in Johnstown, the former home of Sir William Johnson and Molly Brant and his Loyalist son, Sir John Johnson. For the next fourteen years Grider traveled the length and breadth of the valley sketching and painting water colors of important buildings and battlefields.  He even drew buildings that no longer existed, based on the memories of Valley residents include old Forts long destroyed in the war. 

Along with buildings, Grider also drew pictures of powder horns, once prized possessions of Revolutionary Soldiers, many were intricately carved by their owners. Some include valuable genealogical information. According to the Albany State Archives, "By the time of Grider's death in 1900,  he had compiled nine volumes containing 1,041 pieces, including 623 water color sketches, 42 water color portraits, 169 tracings of manuscripts, 81 original engravings, seven original manuscripts, 71 tracings of maps and plans, 23 photographs and 25 water color drawings of powder horns."[2] One of the manuscripts is the Clyde Manuscript. 

Samuel Clyde
Rufus Grider Cherry Valley from Samuel Clyde's 
Rufus Grider was drawn to Cherry Valley, site of the 1780 Cherry Valley Massacre, one of many atrocities committed during the Revolution. Samuel Clyde, his wife Catherine Wasson Clyde and his family resided on a hill overlooking the settlement of Cherry Valley. Their house, indeed the entire town was burned to the ground during and after the Massacre. Grider drew the Valley from the Clyde home site and other points in the Valley, including the Campbell home site.  Included in his collection were two further biographies, his commissions for the rank of Captain, Major and Lt. Colonel, his commission as Sheriff of Montgomery County after the war, relics, and portraits. A veritable gold mine of information, both historical and genealogical. 

Alden, Campbell, Dickson, Mitchell......
Rufus Grider The Old Stone Fort
The Grider archives contain articles related to many of the Cherry Valley families, including the Campbells. Colonel Samuel Campbell, friend and neighbor of the Clydes, fought at the desperate Battle of Oriskany. His wife Jane and their children were abducted and taken to Canada during the Cherry Valley Massacre. The archives include a Campbell family bible and Col. Campbell's powder horn. There is a long list names included in the archives, names like Bellinger, Wilson, Murphy, all with connections to the Valley and the American Revolution. There is a extensive list of items belonging to Timothy Murphy, the war hero and sniper who killed General Simon Fraser at the Battle of Bemis Heights. Murphy was the subject of the book, The Rifleman by John Brick. Deeds, commission and personal items belonging to the Vrooman family of Schoharie Valley. 

How did it get there?
When Rufus died in 1900 he was survived by a brother and sister, his own children and wife having predeceased him. Upon Grider's death the archive came into the hands of a dealer who sold them to W. Pierrepont White of Utica, New York. They were sold to the New York State Archives in 1941 by his heirs. That being said, there are many Grider paintings, drawings and artifact that are not in the archives. The Van Alstyne House in Canajoharie has several Grider works of art in their collection. Others are in private hands. If you google his name you can see many example of his work online. There is also a book available on amazon which includes many examples of his work. See: Rufus Grider in Color, by AJ Berry for more examples of his work. 
Rufus Grider Powder Horn

How do you access the collection?
I was in New York over the summer, unfortunately I did not know about this collection until I got home to Texas. Very Sad! But, if you want to see the collection you must make arrangements in advance through Manuscripts and Special Collections. The New York State Library is located in Albany, New York. This is a link to the Rufus Grider Collection.

Are you going to the Archive? Drop me a line, I have a laundry list of items for you to check for me!


[1] Charles Thornton Adams, The Family of James Thornton, Father of the Hon. Matthew Thornton, 
(Philadelphia: Dando Printing and Publishing, 1903).

[2] New York State Library, "Rufus Alexander Grider Albums, 1886-1900", NYSED.Gov ( : accessed 29 December 2018). see manuscripts and special collections. 

Monday, January 28, 2019

Family Myths and Legends: They're Not All Cherokee Princesses

I write two genealogy cum family history blogs, this one and a second one that is dedicated to dispelling mythical Native American ancestry. But not all myths involve Indian Princesses. It seems almost every family has some tall tale attached with a fabulously rich ancestor, a runaway, a link to nobility or other grand family. 

Here is one I found attached to my ancestor James Thornton, a Scots-Irish immigrant from the north of Ireland. James arrived in Boston with his family in 1718.  According to many trees on ancestry and he had a daughter named Catherine Thornton who married David Tate in Boutetorte County, Virginia. Catherine's date of birth is unknown, but she had a son in about 1758, so she was likely born in the 1730s, long after the Thorntons had left Ireland. James and his family settled in Massachusetts far from Virginia, but no one questions how did this woman got to Virginia on her own. Other family trees include a second daughter, Elizabeth, who like Catherine married and lived in Virginia. 

I found a tree on familysearch for David Tate and his wife Catherine. Catherine's parents are said to not James, but his son William Thornton and his wife Dorcas Little Thornton.  This is also the case on a forum. Dorcas was born in 1725. She met and married William in Massachusetts. When Catherine was born about 1735, Dorcas was only about 9 or 10 years old living with her parents near Worcester, Massachusetts, she is not Catherine's mother. Five minutes of research would prove how wrong this is.

I found an old article online on the Tate family history. It was written and published in 1936 in the Chattanooga Times in Tennessee. The article states that the woman David Tate married was "an Irish girl named Catherine Thornton, her family belonged to the nobility of Ireland. She ran away from home and came to America, as did many others at the same time, impelled by a spirit of adventure and settled in Virginia."

The runaway / noble family story is usually attached to a male ancestor, I'd not seen a runaway female prior to this but there you go. There are trees, today, on ancestry and other genealogy sites that include this myth in their family tree, without question. This part of the story reminds me of William Smith Bryan who I wrote about in an earlier blog post. He is also said to be a 'prince of Ireland.' His legend has evolved over the years and in his current state he is said to have been deported by Oliver Cromwell and sent to Virginia. Both these stories can be put to bed with on a short amount of research.

One of the most intricate myths I've ever encountered is the story of Thomas Pasmere Carpenter. This one seems to be not so much an old family story as a intentionally created myth. This fabrication was the subject of a masters degree thesis by Susan Reynolds. You can read it here. Thomas was also a runaway. He abandoned a wealthy shipping family from Devon to live in a cave among the Powhatan Indians and of course marries his Indian Princess.

Other myths in my trees include the three brothers myths. You know the one, three brothers left xyz and sailed to America. Then there is the ancestor who escaped a British Man-O-War in a barrel, I rather like that one.  One of my favorites is the son of an Earl who became a miller and immigrated to Boston in 1630 with the Winthrop Fleet. 

I never understand people who don't research their ancestors and try to get the real story. I guess I am a 'Doubting Thomas' by nature and I like my ancestors plain and simple. It's the finding that I enjoy; tracking them down and proving the exist. But hey, if I end up being related to a bit of royalty, I'm down with that.

Do you have any good ancestor myths? Post them in the comments and we can compare stories.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Best Books and Websites on the Historical Mohawk Valley, New York

I recently wrote a book set in the 1700s in the Mohawk Valley. This time period covered both the French and Indian Wars and the American Revolution. The Mohawk Valley is of great historical significance during this period and its history is fascinating. To get my history right I spent months doing research and even convinced my husband to take a trip to the Mohawk Valley. I have to say it is a spectacular place and I loved every minute of it. Here are some of my go to books on the history of the valley as well as a list of very helpful websites that provided an amazing amount of information. In no particular order:

Bloody Mohawk by Richard Berleth. Ok, this was my go to book. So well written, lots of maps, chock full of information. I could not have written my book without it, well really I could have but it would have been harder. Anyway, I love this book. If you are looking for an in depth look at the history of this area and the personalities that shaped it, this is right up your alley. Its not a dry scholarly book that bores you, it pulls you into the history.

Author Gavin Watts has written multiple books on the Mohawk Valley, specifically during the 8 years of the American Revolution. What I really enjoyed about his books was that many are written from a British/Canadian point of view. So the American Patriots are the enemy and the British and their Tory allies are, well, the good guys. Amazon has a five book bundle of his books which is great value for the money. Don't let the title put you off, this is American history, from a Canadian perspective. The books are well written and include lots of maps, drawings and photos. I found them very informative.

I know most towns have these pictorial books but I especially liked this one on Schenectady. When we visited we stayed in the oldest section of town, the Stockade. This book was very helpful and many of the pictures of old Schenectady are of the Stockade section of town.

Schenectady Digital History Archive: this website is the bomb! So much information crammed into its pages. It also has digital copies of two great books,  A History of Schenectady During the Revolution by Willis T. Hanson, Jr. (Brattleboro, VT: E. L. Hildreth & Co., 1916) and all four volumes (3600+ pages) of History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925, edited by Nelson Greene (Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1925). Both of these books were enormously helpful. They are broken into chapters and are completely searchable. If you are interested in the genealogy of the area the website also includes the book Hudson-Mohawk Genealogical and Family Memoirs (New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1911).

Three Rivers this website focuses on the three rivers: Mohawk, Schoharie and Hudson. It was started in 1998 and has a ton of information about the area. This is a website that you have to spend a few hours-days poking around on. It has a vast collection of links to other websites, books, etc. Some of the links no longer work, but most are still active. I can't describe it and do it justice, just check it out. It has not been updated since  the 2014 death of its webmaster A.J. Berry.

Fort Plank this website is run by author and historian Ken Johnson. It is full of information about the area during the American Revolution. Ken has written a book, The Bloodied Mohawk, available through this website that has extensive research into the participants of the Revolution. In his own words the book is:
A new annotated history of the American Revolution in the upper Mohawk Valley of New York is now available from Fort Plank Historian Ken D. Johnson and Picton Press. Using the "BEST EVIDENCE" available, the actual words of Fort Plank's Defenders and other Mohawk Valley Partisans, a fascinating account of this epic struggle is produced. Never before published accounts of battles, raids, troop movements, supply activities, and individual hardships are herein provided for your examination and perusal. Every statement of fact is documented as to its EXACT source so that the casual reader, or the professional researcher, can easily consult the original source document(s).
His web address is:   I found Ken to be responsive to questions, he was very helpful.

There is a Facebook group: The Colonial Families of Tryon County which is active and promotes the history of the area with a focus on the colonial period and the American Revolution. The group members are extremely helpful and love to share their history. One, Shirley, was kind enough to open a historical site, normally closed, just for me and my husband, so awesome.

My book, based on the life of my ancestors who lived in Cherry Valley during the American Revolution portrays life in the 1700s and the realities of war.  If you enjoy reading historical fiction this is the book for you! The story follows the life of my ancestor Catherine Wasson and her husband Colonel Samuel Clyde of the Tryon County Militia, hero of the Battle of Oriskany and commander of Fort Plain. The couple made their home in idyllic Cherry Valley just before peace with France was declared bringing an end to the last French and Indian War. But worse was to come and the patriots of the Mohawk Valley bore the brunt of the war with England during the Revolution. Women and children were not spared as the Clyde Family faced the almost daily fear of attack. Full of history and the colorful characters of the Valley, its a whirlwind of a read. 

Do you have a great book or website that should be added to this list? Let me know and I put it up.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Blood In The Valley by Jean M. Roberts

I'm proud to announce the publication of my new (second) novel: BLOOD IN THE VALLEY, available on in both Kindle and paperback versions. (If you have Kindle Unlimited it's free!) This book brings together my three passions: history, genealogy and writing. Let me tell you a little bit about the book. 

BLOOD IN THE VALLEY is based on the life of my ancestor Catherine Wasson Clyde and her husband Samuel Clyde. Catherine's grandparents, James and Catherine Thornton, immigrated in 1718 from Northern Ireland. They were part of the Scots-Irish immigration. The family settled first in Brunswick, Maine but were burnt out by the Natives. They spent a few years in Marblehead before settling in Worcester. The Puritans of Worcester were not amenable to Presbyterian worship  so James Thornton and several other men purchased land and founded their own settlement which was eventually named Pelham. James' son Matthew, born in Ireland, trained to become a doctor; he set up his practice in Londonderry, New Hampshire, home to a large Scots-Irish population. James eventually joined him in, living in Derry. 

Agnes Thornton Wasson and her husband John also migrated to New Hampshire; they settled in a town not far from Londonderry. In about 1754, Agnes and John, her brother William Thornton and his family, along with other Scots-Irish families left New Hampshire for the colony of New York. They arrived in Schenectady just as the last French and Indian war erupted. Following the war the family purchased land in Curries Bush, now Princetown. Catherine Wasson married Samuel Clyde and settled in idyllic Cherry Valley, on the edge of Indian territory. 

The book blends the history of the day with daily life in the 1700s. Few people realize that New York suffered the brunt of the battles during the American Revolution; more than one third of all major battles occurred in the Colony of New York, including some of the bloodiest. Catherine's husband, brothers, and her Thornton cousins fought in many of the major battles, including the Battle of Oriskany, a devastating fight that almost wiped out the fighting men of Tryon County. But this is not just the story of the men who fought, it's about their wives and children, and the plight they suffered through seven long years of war. 

The Cherry Valley Massacre marked a low point in the guerrilla warfare that was destroying the Mohawk Valley. Attacked repeatedly by Loyalist, Tories and their Indian allies, this area was savagely attacked year after year. The raiders employed a scorched-earth campaign that spared no one; not women, not children, nor the elderly. Farms were burnt to the ground, grain and livestock, stolen or destroyed. Thousands were either killed or taken as captives to Canada. Many were never seen or heard from again. 

This was the world of Catherine and Samuel Clyde and BLOOD IN THE VALLEY is there story. I hope you give it a read.

Don't forget, if you have Kindle Unlimited, it's free, for now! I have also enrolled my first book: WEAVE A WEB OF WITCHCRAFT,  about a couple accused of witchcraft in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1651, is also available for free on Kindle Unlimited. 

Tuesday, January 1, 2019

Mary Bliss Parsons: Accursed Name, Witch of Springfield, Massachusetts

Weave a Web of Witchcraft
In 1651 Mary and Hugh Parsons of Springfield were sent to Boston to stand trial on charges of Witchcraft, a hanging offense, long before the Salem trials. Mary died in prison shortly after her arrival. Accused of murder as well as witchcraft, her fate was sealed the minute she admitted to the crimes. Hugh fought his charges and despite being found guilty by the Court in Boston, the verdict was overturned and he was released from prison. He never returned to Springfield. You would think one witch was plenty for any small Massachusetts town, but not so for Springfield. Not only did it harbor a second witch, but her name was also Mary Parsons, what are the odds? 

Mary Bliss and Joseph Parsons
Mary, the daughter of Thomas and Margaret Bliss, was born in England around 1628. Her father was the son of Thomas Bliss of Belstone Parish in Devonshire, he immigrated to the New World and settled in Hartford, Connecticut. Mary married Joseph Parsons of Springfield on 2 November, 1646. 

Joseph Parsons was an ambitious successful man. In 1646 he was elected town surveyor of Springfield, still a small town;  in 1647 he was one of only 42 taxpayers (all men of course). He continued to fulfill his civic duty with increasingly more important jobs. By 1651, he was elected a selectman of the town. In 1655 he purchased land that would become the town of Northampton, to which the family removed shortly thereafter [1]

In the narrow world of Puritan Massachusetts, petty jealousies, slights, and insults fermented just below the surface. According to some, Mary Bliss Parsons was a strong woman who spoke her mind. When the Parsons moved to their new home of Northampton they were followed by other residents of Springfield, including Sarah and James Bridgeman. What seems to have started as idle gossip on the part of Sarah soon blossomed into something much more, accusations of witchcraft.

In the earlier  witchcraft case, Mary Parsons accused the widow Mercy Marshfield of witchcraft. Mercy sued her for slander and won. Hugh Parsons was forced to pay an enormous fine to settle the case. Likewise the growing rumor that Mary Bliss Parsons was a witch began to impact her life. Reputation was everything to these people and to be falsely accused of witchcraft was not to be borne. Joseph Parsons, on behalf of his wife, accused Sarah Bridgeman of slander. 

Slander Trial
Sarah Bridgeman and her neighbors were deposed in both Springfield and Northampton. Every manner of ill luck, sickness and misfortune was laid at the feet of Mary Bliss Parsons. There was testimony about yarn, pigs, sick children and a cow that was bitten by a rattlesnake. Counter testimony was given by supporters of the Parsons; Mary was an innocent victim falsely accused by vicious neighbors happy to see her get her comeuppance. [2] 

The local magistrate found in Mary's favor and on September the 8th Sarah was arrested. She traveled to Cambridge in October to stand trial. Sarah was found guilty of slander and just like Hugh Parsons, her husband was ordered to pay damages and court costs to the tune of £17 1s. 8d., quite a sum in those days. 

Following the slander trial, life resumed its course but old wounds festered. In 1672 Robert Bartlett married Mary Bridgeman, daughter of Sarah and James. Sadly, the woman died within two years of marriage and the Bridgemans and Bartletts knew just who was at fault. The families again accused Mary Bliss Parsons of witchcraft. Once again, testimony was taken and anyone with a grudge against the Parsons had a ready tale to tell. Mary appeared before the court, ready to proclaim her innocence and face her accusers. Mary's body was searched, by her neighbors, for the mark of witch. Presumably none were found.

Mary was arrested and ordered to face trial.  In March she was sent to Boston to await her trial in prison. Her trial took place in May, before the Court of Assistants. Mary argued her own case and her testimony made a greater impact on her jury as she was freed, case dismissed. Her return to Northampton must have been bittersweet; she'd won, but she still had to live among her accusers. The stigma of her imprisonment and trial surely left a deep wound on this proud strong woman. 

By 1679 Mary had borne twelve children, most of whom survived to adulthood. She and her family survived the devastating (1675-76) King Philip's War, which all but drove the English from their American Colonies. 45 of Springfield's 60 houses were burned to the ground and many residents killed. Scary times for nervous, superstitious, witch believing, devil behind every bush kind of people. Joseph purchased land in Springfield, after the war and moved the family back to Springfield. 

Joseph died in 1683. Mary lived a good long life dying in 1712. I wonder what her thoughts were on the 1692 Salem witchcraft trials, which resulted in the deaths of many innocent men and women. Did she feel sympathy for them? Did she believe for one minute that they might be guilty? Did she think on the witchcraft accusations of her namesake, Mary Parsons and wonder if she too might have been innocent? I hope so. 

Not a portrait of Mary Bliss Parsons

The Portrait
Apparently some folks have come to believe that the accompanying portrait is of Mary Bliss Parsons. This does not appear to be the case. See this blog for an explanation. 

More on Mary Bliss Parsons
See this excellent website from UMASS on Mary Parsons and her life and trial.  Includes digital copies of testimony, photos of her descendants homes, genealogies, etc. 


[1] Henry Parsons, Parsons Family; Descendants of Coronet Joseph Parson Springfield 1636...Northampton 1655, (New York: Frank Allaben Genealogical Company, 1912), Internet Archives ( : accessed 1 January 2019).

[2] James Russell Trumbell, History of Northampton, Massachusetts Vol. 1, (Published in Northampton: 1898). Google Books ( : accessed 1 January 2019). 

Roles of Men, Women and Children in 17th Century Puritan Massachusetts

In 17 th century pur itan Massachusetts , the roles of men , women and children were very clearly defined . Men were the ...