Wednesday, December 30, 2015

Percival Levett of York, England; Was he the father of John Leavitt of Hingham, Massachusetts?

Every good genealogist begins their research with a research question. This helps tighten the search and avoid distractions from interesting information that leads one astray. You know how it goes, you sit down to research your great grandfather in Maine and the next thing you know your looking at stuff on your Great Great Grandmother in Bolivia. At the end of the day you have reams of paperwork on a dozen people and your really haven't advanced your genealogy. I am going to try to craft a question every time I fire up this blog and really try to stick to it, I'm sure I'll still have my moments when I go 'offroading' but I hope this will improve my research. So here's my question of the day: Who were the parents of John Leavitt, 1635 immigrant to Hingham, MA.

the internet knows
St. Michael Le Belfrey by Philip Halling
I know, I know, all I have to do is google John Leavitt, and I will have any number of websites, from ancestry to wikitree and everything in between, tell me that the parents of John Leavitt were Percival Leavitt and his wife Margaret Linkley of York, Yorkshire, England. That was easy, but now lets take a closer look at the sources (proof) on which we can make this claim. Remember, genealogy without proof is called fiction. Sometimes I feel like that lady from the hamburger ad, "Where's the Proof"! Neither the Wikitree profile nor the werelate profile for Percival and John Leavitt offer anything that looks like proof.

what does anderson say
Since John Leavitt immigrated about 1634, my go to guy is Robert Charles Anderson and his Great Migration Series. John Leavitt's profile offers no clues as to his origins. Anderson tells us that his year of birth is estimated at 1612 based only on an age of at least 21, when he married in New England. Of course he may have been older than that but we don't know. A search of  the databases on American Ancestors give an ancestry for Percival, but do not name a wife or any children, it only says that he had nine.

hitting to books  
The first book I looked at was The Leavitt Family Book, vol. 1, by Emily Leavitt Noyes, first published in 1941. She says in her book that she believes that John of Hingham was the son of Percival Leavitt and his unknown wife. She also says although she believes it, there is absolutely no proof.  She gives a list of the children of Percival beginning with John, b. 1608. then goes on to say the birth year of John of Hingham is the same as the John in England. Below is a comparison of Noyes findings and mine. Boy are they different!
I could not find a single name and date that matched. Where did she get her birth dates from?

(1625) bp. 27 Dec 1625 St. Helen’s
(1628) bp. 27 April 1628 St. Helens
(1616) bp. 29 Nov 1616 All Saints Pavement
(1631) bp. 12 July 1631 St. Michael Le Belfry
(1649) bp. 15 Feb 1649 St. Michael Le Belfry
(1614) bp. 27  Sep. 1614 All Saints Pavement
(1624) bp. 1624 St. Helens
(1634) bp. 29 March 1634 St. Michael Le Belfry
(1630) bp.  11 June 1630 St. Michael Le Belfry
(1640) bp. 4 April 1640 St. Michael Le Belfry

why I think I'm right
Photo by Euan Nelson, The Merchant Adventurers Guildhall
Percival Levett became a Freeman of the City of York in 1611 by patrimony, which means by birthright. He was a son of the city of York. A man became a Freeman of the city at the age of 21 in order to become a member of a guild. You needed to become a member of a guild to ply your trade. The Levetts were Merchants. Percival could not work as a merchant until he was a guild member. His older brother, Christopher became a Freeman when he was 21. It is logical to assume that Percival was also 21 when he became a freeman.

A few years after becoming a freeman, Christopher Levett, who was born in 1586, married and began his family. Men did not marry until they had a trade and could provide for their family. Applying this same logic to Percival, who was younger than Christoper, their father's heir, he became a freeman in 1611 and then got married and then his first child was born in 1614. This timeline would make perfect sense. He gets his freemanship, begins working as a merchant, marries and starts his family. I do not see how he could marry and have children prior to 1611.

what's in a name
The Levett's seem to reuse family names. We know that Percival had siblings named William, Grace and Mary as did the Percival in my list. Noyes Levett family does not have any of these names. Noyes makes apoint of saying that many of the English family names are carried over in the American Levetts, including the names Jeremiah and Timothy. These two male names were the sons of Christopher Levett, brother of Percival. John of Hingham had the following children: John, Hannah, Samuel, Elizabeth, Jeremiah, Israel, Moses, Josiah, Nehemiah, Sarah, Mary, Hannah, Abigail. Where is Grace, Martha, Benjamin, or Joseph. How about a Percival. John of Hingham's children's names look more like a list of biblical names than family names.

two sons named John:
While it is not out of the question that Percival would  have two sons with the same name, it was an unusual practice. I know Percival had a son John baptized in 1625. Would he have two sons named John?
medieval street in York, Eric Voller

another thing about Percival
Records show that Percival was married at least twice. In 1648 he was made administrator of his wife, Jane__Wade Levett's deceased husband, Christopher Wade. She was most likely the mother of Samuel b. 1649.

I have seen on several websites information that Percival died in Hingham, Massachusetts. However, Mr. Percival Levett was buried on 16 September 1654 in St. Michael Le Belfry, York, along way from Hingham.

back to the question
So, back to my original question: who was the father of John Leavitt of Hingham, Massachusetts. My answer: I don't know.

Francis Collins, The Registers of St. Michael le Belfry, York, Part 1 1565-1653, (Leeds: Knight and Forster, 1899), digital images, Archive ( : accessed 31 December 2015).

Francis Collins, Register of the Freeman of the City of York 1272-1759, (Durham: Andrews and Co., 1900), digital images, Archive ( : accessed 31 December 2015).

Edward  Bulmer, The Parish Records of St. Martin cum Gregory, York, (York: DeLittle and Sons, 1897), digital images, Archive ( : accessed 31 December 2015).

"England, Births and Christenings, 1538-1975," database, Family Search ( : accessed 31 December 2015), John Levitt, 27 December 1625, citing York, Yorkshire, England, reference - 2:2GZGNPQ; FHL microfilm 1,068,431.

Emily Leavitt Noyes, Leavitt, Descendants of John the Immigrant Through His Son Moses, (Concord, New Hampshire: Evans Printing Co., 1941), digital images, Archive ( : accessed 31 December 2015).

"Sheriff of York," Geni ( of york/4815 : accessed 31 December 2015), 1597, Percival Levett.

 "53: Thomas Leavitt of New England," Lincolnshire Notes & Queries, Vol 3, (1 January 1904 to 1 October 1905), 245, digital image, Google Play ( : accessed 31 December 2015).

Sunday, December 20, 2015

Edward Gilman (1587-1655) Hingham, England to Exeter, NH

Edward Gilman and his family were part of a large contingent of  immigrants from the market town of Hingham, Norfolk, England who over the course of several years established a daughter town of Hingham in Plymouth County, Massachusetts. The newly formed Colony of Massachusetts held great promise for men who had the drive, ambition and capital to take advantage of the lucrative opportunities awaiting them. All they had to do was survive the crossing and then stay healthy. Edward and his family thrived in their new home. He didn't stay long in Hingham, eventually making his home in Exeter in New Hampshire. Here is what I know about Edward Gilman. 

english origins
The ancestry of the Gilman family was first put into print in 1895. The researcher, himself a Gilman, did  great job, but he did make some errors, which are still perpetuated today. One of the best resources I found was a book called "The Ancestry of Abel Lunt, 1769-1806, of Newbury, Massachusetts," printed in 1968. The very best sources are, as any good genealogist knows, not a book or a website, but the primary information. These types of sources are not always easy or cheap to find. I always try to locate the original source if possible but I did not have much luck in this case. 

The first definite ancestor was also an Edward. He lived in Caston, a small town near Hingham. He was probably born around 1525. His King, Henry the Eighth, was still married to his first wife, Katherine of Aragon. England was still a catholic nation. On 21 June 1550 Edward married Rose Ryse in the parish church of Holy Cross. Their first child, Margaret, was baptized on 1 December 1550.  Hum, there's only six months between the marriage and the baptism, just saying. More children arrived about every two years or so. The last of ten children, to arrive was Olive. She was baptized on 21 November 1573. Olive would never know her father. 

On 5 February 1572/3 Edward felt the need to make his will. He was likely between fifty and sixty years old, was he feeling his age, did he know his time was coming to an end? He was styled 'Yeoman' in his will so he was a successful man. He made bequests to his wife and all his children. His will was proved on 7 July 1573. His son Edward, received a tenement called Halwick's with pasture and meadow. 

edward  not robert
In his 1895 ancestry of the Gilman Family, Alexander William Gilman, wrote that the father of Edward Gilman, the immigrant, was Robert, son of Edward and Rose. In fact, it was his older brother Edward who was the father. According to long dead researcher Colonel Charles E. Banks, Edward gave a deposition in 1637 in England in which he stated his age, 50, and his father's name, Edward. The source for this, if you're interested is the Court of Requests, bundle 27, pt. 2, Charles I. You can find it at the National Archives in London if you have some spare time. I guess I'm going to take Col. Bank's word on this one.

15th century tomb in St. Andrews Hingam
I have seen on various websites a birth date of 22 June 1555 for Edward, number two. But I cannot find any source that would confirm this date. I cannot imagine where it came from. We do know he was baptized in Caston on 20 April 1557. England was in the throes of religious convulsions. King Henry had thrown off the mantle of Catholicism for a more protestant leaning church. His son, King Edward, continued to progress towards becoming a fully protestant country. But with his early death in 1553, and the crowning of his catholic sister Mary, England was once again a catholic nation. A year or so after Edward Gilman was baptized a catholic, Elizabeth was queen and England once again was a Protestant nation. This back and forth must have taken a psychological toll on the English people.

Edward married but we do not know his wife's name. They most likely married in the early 1580's. Edward also seems to have moved to Hingham, which is only about five miles from Caston. Edward may have married in Hingham and had his children baptized there. Unfortunately, the parish records for Hingham don't exist prior to 1601.

edward the immigrant
Edward was born around 1587, based on his deposition of 1637 when he said he was fifty years old. No baptismal record has been found. Edward married Mary Clark in St. Andrew's Hingham on 3 June 1614. I doubt that Mary, in her wildest dreams, could not have imagined the future that awaited her as Mrs. Edward Gilman. The first twenty four years of their marriage were predictable. Edward provided for his family, Mary had babies and ran the household.

Protestant King James I followed Queen Elizabeth and most of the country embraced the changes to the Church of England. Problems began to surface when Charles I ascended the throne. Charles was married to a Catholic French princess. Under his influence and that of his Archbishop, William Laud, the Church of England was beginning to be pressed into uniformity and in the Puritan's eyes, backsliding into Catholicism. Puritans, known as Nonconformists, and the more radical element, known as Separatist, were under threat from both royal and ecclesiastical authority. The Reverend Robert Peck, minister at St. Andrew's in Hingham was held in great esteem by his Puritan leaning flock. When he was forced out of his benefice and chose to immigrate to Massachusetts he was joined by many of his parishioners, including Edward Gilman and his family.

Reverend Peter Hobart, born and raised in Hingham had already made the courageous decision to leave England for Massachusetts. Accompanying Hobart was Nicholas Jacob and his family, his wife was Mary Gilman, sister of Edward.

children of edward and mary 
Mary gave birth to eleven children. She saw seven of them into the grave. Four of her children died as newborns or infants, and one as a small child. I wonder if she felt sad leaving her poor buried babies behind in England. Mary also lost one of her adult children. Edward was lost at sea, he must have been gone for some time before they got word of his passing.

1. Mary bp. 6 August 1615, m. John Folsom of Hingham 1636, d. Exeter, NH
2. Edward bp. 26 Dec 1617, m. before 1647 Elizabeth Smith, died at sea in 1653, sailing to England to buy sawmill components. 
3 and 4. Twins Moses and Joshua, bp.15 September buried 19 September 1619.
5. Sarah bp. 19 Feb 1622/23, m. John Leavitt, d. 26 May 1700
6. Lydia b. 1624-1625, m. in Hingham, MA Daniel Cushing, d. abt. 1689.
7. John bp. 23 May 1626, m. 30 June 1657 Elizabeth Treworgy, d. 24 July 1708.
8. Jeremy bp. 27 Nov 1628, buried 19 Aug 1635.
9. Moses bp. 11 March 1630, m. Elizabeth Hersey, d. before 6 August 1702.
10. Daniel bp. 29 Aug 1633, buried 21 April 1634.
11. Elizabeth bp. 28 Sept. 1634, buried 19 Feb 1634/35.

hingham and beyond
Edward got off the ship and hit the ground running. Some men just seem to thrive in their new home and he was one. On 13 March 1638/9 he took his freeman's oath, allowing him to hold public office and vote in elections. In 1641 he was part of a group who were given a large land grant in what would be the new town of Rehoboth, established in 1643. His son Edward left Hingham for Ipswich by 1646 and Edward Senior follow by 1648, buying his son Edward's property. 

Edward Jr. left Ipswich for Exeter where he began work on a sawmill. His father and mother joined him there in 1652. In May of that year Mr. Edward Gilman was accepted as an inhabitant and given permission to set up sawmill on the Lamprey River. John Folsom, Edward's son in law, also left Exeter and joined in the family business. Sadly Edward Jr. was lost at sea on a voyage to England in 1653. 

When Edward Gilman died, aged about sixty eight, he left an estate valued at 211 pounds in real estate. Much of this land had been given to his sons for their use. John Leavitt had the land in Hingham. Sons Samuel and Moses also held land from Edward. Edward made his final bequests in the form of a deed, which was written on 14 January 1654/5. This deed was presented his deed will to the Quarterly Court held in Salisbury in May of 1655. 

Mary left Exeter after her husbands death and returned to live in Hingham with her daughter Lydia Cushing. Mary died on 22 June1681.

a word about mary
In his many articles on the Gilman family, Clarence Torrey also wrote about Mary's family, the Clark Family. He believed that her parents were John and Elizabeth Clark of Hingham. If so she had three sisters. Rebecca Clark was the first wife of  Joseph Peck, brother of Rev. Robert Peck, she died in England in 1637, he remarried and immigrated with his second wife. There were two other sisters; Margaret who married Anthony Cooper and Jane who married Robert Kirby. The Cooper immigrated to Hingham, New England in 1635 and Jane Kirby stayed in England. If true, Mary Gilman had a sister waiting for her in her new home, this must have been of some comfort to her. 

photo by Adrian S. Pye creative commons license
the lincoln connection
Edward Gilman's sister Bridget married Edward Lincoln in Hingham, England in 1603. Their son Samuel Lincoln is the ancestor of President Abraham Lincoln. There is a memorial to President Lincoln in St. Andrews Church in Hingham. 

Mary Gilman and John Folsom of Hingham

Alexander William Gilman, Searches into the History of the Gillman or Gilman Family, Including the Various Branches in England, Ireland, America and Belgium, (London: Elliot Stock, 1895).

Walter Goodwin Davis, "The Ancestry of Abel Lunt, 1769-1806, of Newbury, Massachusetts, (Portand, Maine: The Anthoensen Press, 1963), Archive ( : accessed 14 December 2015).

Clarence Almon Torrey, "The English Origin of Edward Gilman," The American Genealogist, April 1934, 11-144 digital images, American Ancestors ( : accessed 14 December 2015).

Clarence Almon Torrey, "The Lincoln-Gilman Ancestry," The American Genealogist, April 1934, 11-137, digital images, American Ancestors ( : accessed 14 December 2015).

Clarence Almon Torrey, "The Clark and Cooper Families of Hingham, England," The American Genealogist, July 1936, 13-151, digital images, American Ancestors ( : accessed 14 December 2015).

Clarence Almon Torrey, "Reverend Peter Hobart's Wives," The American Genealogist, July 1935, 12-132, digital images, American Ancestors ( : accessed 14 December 2015).

"Essex County, MA: Probate File Papers, 1638-1881," digital images, AmericanAncestors ( : accessed 20 December 2015); probate case 10958.

Sibyl I. Noyes, Charles Thornton Libby, and Walter Goodwin Davis, Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire, (Baltimore: Genealogical Pub., 1972) 262.

Constance Le Neve Gilman Ames, The Story of the Gilmans and a Gilman Genealogy of the descendants of Edward Gilman of Hingam, England 1550-1950, (Yakima, Washington : Shields Ranier Printing Company, 1950), digital image, Hathi Trust (

Caston Parish Registers, > parishes > Caston > Gilman, Gillman, Gylman, database, Norfolk Transcription Archive ( : accessed 20 December 2015).

Photos from England are from the website Geograph and are used under the creative commons license. 

Saturday, December 12, 2015

John Folsom: Hingham, England to Hingham, Massachusetts

english origins
Hingham is a small rural market town in the county of Norfolk, in England. A town which, I would wager, most people have never heard of. This little English town has a 'daughter' town in Massachusetts, also called Hingham. Hingham, MA, originally called Bare Cove, was formed in 1635 from the proverbial Adam's rib, when a significant portion of the population of Hingham, England separated themselves from their homes, their families and all they knew and created a new Hingham. The driving force behind this migration was the spiritual leadership of the Reverend Peter Hobart, born and raised in Hingham and the Rector of St. Andrew's parish church in Hingham, the Reverend Robert Peck. These men and their congregation hoped to join in the formation of a theocratic state in which they could live free from the intrusion of the Church of England and at the same time impose their religious views on all members of this new society. Joining in this experimental society was John Folsom and his new wife Mary Gilman, both from Hingham.

english folsoms and alias smiths
John Folsom's English ancestry can be traced back about a century or so. He seems to have come from successful yeoman stock who lived in and around the Hingham area. His earliest identifiable ancestor was William Folsom who was born around the year 1500 or so. William married a woman named Agnes Smith of Besthorpe, Norfolk, not far from Hingham. After their marriage he took the surname of Smith and kept the name Folsom as an alias. Why? It has been suggested that perhaps Agnes was a relatively wealthy heiress and William took her surname in honor of her family. Who knows, but his sons, grandsons and great grandsons, used some combination of Folsom-Smith to identify themselves. William wrote his will on 30 September 1551 and it was proved on 31 May 1552. Named in his will were sons: William, Adam and Robert.

William's son Adam married a woman known only as Eme. His will was proved on 2 April 1566 and in it he named his children: Adam, Ellen, Agnes and John. His brother Robert was his executor. He died and was buried in Besthorpe on 11 April 1566. He and his brother were both known as Smith alias Folsom. Adam and Eme's son, John, also used the name Smith alias Folsom. He married a woman named Grace. He died without a will, but his burial was recorded in the Hingham Parish records in 1620.

The Smith-Folsom family really like the name Adam. John's son Adam married a woman named Agnes. He wrote his will in April of 1627, his mother Grace was living with him and he named her in his will. He gave his son John land in Hackford. He also named sons Peter and Adam and a daughter Mary.

Finally we get to John the immigrant. It is assumed that he was baptized in Hingham, but here is no record of it. Based on his testimony in court depositions he is believed to have been born around 1613. John's marriage was recorded in the St. Andrew's parish records. John Folsom alias Smith married Marie Gyleman in Hingham in 1636. Notice that the surnames have switched back and his was calling himself Folsom at the time of the marriage.

coming to america
What were the influences that persuaded John Folsom to pack up and sail to New England. His minister, Reverend Robert Peck, was under threat from Archbishop Laud and the established Anglican church. Peck needed to leave England if he was going to continue preach and practice his puritan beliefs. He would have heard from others who had begun the Massachusetts Colony and been urged to join them. Other ministers had left and lead their flock to America.

John was young, maybe as young as 21 or 22. Mary Gilman Folsom had several brothers John's age, they and their parents also emigrated.  Maybe it sounded like a great adventure to these young men. Whatever their reasons, they bought supplies, farm implements and anything they could bring aboard ship to start a new life, said goodbye to family and friends and traveled south to the mouth of the river Thames. On 26 April 1638 they boarded the ship "The Diligent" long with 130 or so others from Hingham and surrounding towns and villages and set sail for Boston. They arrived in Boston three and a half months later on 10 August.

When the new immigrants arrived the planting season was long over. John and his family would have to survive on what they brought or what they could buy or what their new neighbors could generously share. Their first priority was to secure housing. New England winters are long and cold. A warm house with plenty of firewood was essential to surviving. The Folsoms and the Gilmans not only survived but thrived in their new home.

John and Mary's arrival in Hingham probably felt like a reunion of sorts. They were reunited with friends and neighbors who had left in 1635. John was given a house lot of four acres on which he built his house. Most, if not all, of his children were born in that house. The house was photographed in about 1873, but has long since been torn down.

Not all of the immigrants stayed in Hingham. Adam Folsom, presumably a brother of John's, immigrated a year later, in 1639. He returned to England, where he died in 1670. Reverend Robert Peck also returned to England after the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the great Puritan Experiment. He regained his rectorship of the church in Hingham.

In 1654 Hingham had 60 families and is said to have 'some complete streets'. The predominant industry was farming and fishing.

children of john and mary:

1. Samuel, baptized 3 Oct 1641, (he was born between 1638 and 1639), m. 22 Dec 1663 Mary Robie, d. 1700.

2. John, baptized 3 Oct 1641, (born prob. 1639-1641), m. 10 Nov 1675 Abigail Perkins, d. before 6 Dec 1716.

3. Nathaniel baptized 2 June 1644, m. 9 June 1674 Hannah Farrow, d. after 1714.

4. Israel, baptized 26 April 1646, he married and had a son named Israel. His wife is unknown as is his death.

5. Peter, baptized 8 April 1649, m. Susanna, d. in 1717.

6. Mary, baptized 13 April 1651, m. 12 June 1672 George Marsh, death unknown

7. Ephramin born 28 Dec 1654, m. Phaltiel Hall, d. 11 June 1709 (killed by Indians)

I don't know what John did in England to make a living, but I suspect he was a farmer. He more than likely continued to farm in New England inn order to feed his family. He was also given the liberty, along with Joshua Hobart, brother of Peter, to set up a mills on Rocky Meadow and Bound Brook Rivers.

Men were also expected to participate in the civic life of their towns. In most of Massachusetts men were required to be members of their church and take the freeman's oath in order to vote or hold office. In an unusual move Hingham allowed non freeman to hold town offices. In 1645 John Folsom was chosen to be a Selectman. I cannot find anything that would indicate if he took the Freeman's Oath or not.

Exeter was founded in 1638 by the Reverend John Wheelwright and his congregation which had followed him from England to Massachusetts. He had been at odds with the Puritan establishment  almost since his arrival, and he moved to the province of New Hampshire to avoid their jurisdiction. When New Hampshire came under the control of Massachusetts he and his flock left for Maine.

The land around Exeter was heavily wooded and had many waterfalls that were excellent for sawmill operations. Mary Gilman Folsom's brother Edward took advantage of the opportunity to set up his own mills when most of the occupants of Exeter abandoned the town. John and Mary joined the Gilman family in Exeter by 1659.

John's job in the family operation was to count and measure the lumber produced in the mills. He was also appointed to choose and mark the tall white pines that were destined to become masts on the ship of his Majesty's Navy.

John was also chosen to serve as Selectman and served multiple times on juries.

In 1641 the four towns of New Hampshire petitioned to be taken under the wing of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. By 1665 many of the men of New Hampshire were ready to regain control of their colony. Selectmen from the towns of Dover, Exeter, Portsmouth and Hampton convened and wrote up a petition addressed to King Charles asking for his intervention. When the Governor and General Court of Massachusetts got wind of this they were not pleased. John Folsom's name is mentioned in many of the correspondences concerning this event. John and his fellow New Hampshire men were not successful in their bid for separation.

New Hampshire remained under the control of Massachusetts for many years to come. In 1684, John Folsom Jr. was involved in another attempt to secure a separation from Massachusetts, again they failed, but it's pretty cool that they were willing to take the risk of angering the powers that be to achieve some measure of freedom.

John died on 27 December 1671 at the age of about 66. Mary died 10 years later. Neither John nor Mary had a will. Their eldest son Samuel was appointed the executor of their estate on 7 Jan 1692/3. The estate was valued at only about 11 pounds or so. John must have distributed his estate prior to his death. In 1672 He gave George Marsh, the new husband of his only daughter Mary, 100 acres of land.

Presumably they were buried in the local burying ground, but their graves are long gone.

Edward and Mary Clark Gilman

The Descendants of the First John Folsom; Dea. John, Lieut. Peter, Ephraim Folsom, (Boston: David Clapp and Sons, 1876), digital images, Folsom Info ( : accessed 12 December 2015).

Jacob Chapman, A Genealogy of the Folsom Family: John Folsom and his Descendants, 1615-1882, (Concord: Republican Press Association, 1882), digital images, Archive (http/ : accessed 28 November 2015).

Elizabeth Knowles Folsom, Genealogy of the Folsom Family: A revised and extended edition including English records, 1638-1939, Vol. 1 (Rutland: The Tuttle Publishing Company, Inc., 1938), digital images, ( : accessed 29 November 2015). 

Ezra S. Sterns, William Frederick Whitcher, Edward Everett Parker, Genealogical and Family History of New Hampshire: A Record of the Achievements of Her People in the Making of a Commonwealth and the Founding of a Nation, Vol 2, (New Hampshire: Lewis Publishing company, 1908), 837, digital images, Google Books ( : accessed 29 November 2015.

H. F. Waters, "Genealogical Gleanings in England," The New England Historical and Genealogical Register 61 (April 1907): 195-196; image copy,  American Ancestors ( : accessed 29 November 2015).

Sibyl Noyes, Charles Thornton Libby, Walter Goodwin Davis, Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire, (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1972) 238-239.

Hingham Parish (Norfolk) Parish Register, Baptisms, Marriages and Burials 1600-1676, p. 39, Foulsham-Gyleman marriage, March 1636; digital images, Family Search (, citing England, Norfolk, Parish Registers, Norfolk County Records Office, 1510-1997.

Barbara Rimkunas, "The Folsoms of Exeter," The Exeter Historical Society, Historically Speaking, ( : accessed 12 December 2015. 

Nathaniel Bouton, "Provincial Papers, Documents and Records Relating to the Province of New Hampshire," Vol. 1, (Concord: George E. Jenks, 1867), Archive ( : accessed 12 December 2015).277-279, 526,544, 551, 559.

Roles of Men, Women and Children in 17th Century Puritan Massachusetts

In 17 th century pur itan Massachusetts , the roles of men , women and children were very clearly defined . Men were the ...